Fabricating Sapphire Semiconductor Devices

university wafer substrates

Sapphire Substrates In Stock

Researchers rejoice! We have a large inventory of sapphire substrates in stock. Below is just a few of what's available.

  • 50.8mm 430um SSP and DSP C-M 0.2 Deg
  • 50.8mm 100um SSP and DSP C-plane off to M Plane 0.2 Deg
  • 50.8mm - Other specs and orienations available
  • 100mm 650um SSP
  • Other diameters from but not limited to 10mm x 10mm, 76.2mm, 150mm and 200mm.

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Sapphire Semiconductor Substrates

Sapphire semiconductor devices are fabricated from high quality optical grade Czochralski sapphire. Our integrated facilities allow regulation of the production of substrates from crystal growth to fabrication, and to accommodate special requests on very short notice.

Sapphire semiconductor substrates are available in all orientations including R-axis (10-12), C-axis (0001), A-axis (11-20), and M-axis (11-10). Substrates are available in various shapes (circular, rectangle, or square), from a few mm up to 100mm in size, and finishes according to customer specification. Primary flats(as per industry standards) are provided on circular substrates for orientation purposes; secondary flats are available on request. Substrate thickness' range from 0.013" (0.25mm) to 0.025" (0.675mm), depending on your particular application requirements.

We have wafers in stock!

Blue LED substrates

Researchers use our high-quality sapphire substrates fabricate Gallium Nitride LED based devices. Substrate tolerances and surface finish are keys to Gallium Nitride device production and yield. Sapphire Products sets the standards for flatness and surface finish. Our strong product development team uses industry standard measurement techniques, such as AFM, X-ray rocking curves and surface analysis to study surface and crystalline quality of substrates. C-axis [0001] wafers precisely oriented to within ± 0.25° and primary flat tolerances to ± 0.5° are available in 2" diameter. Other sapphire orientations, misoriented substrates, and wafer tolerances are available.

What is Sapphire?

Sapphire is an anisotropic monocrystalline material whose thermal expansion and hardness vary greatly depending on the orientation. Sapphire is used in various alignments, such as diamond, gold, silver, copper and even platinum.

Insaco has had experience with the material since 1947 and can give you an idea of how orientation might affect your application. For most applications, orientation is not important and should be considered as a coexistence compared to other materials such as gold and silver.

Birefringence eliminates the optics on the c-axis of the crystal, and therefore the c-axes of the sapphires should be specified for certain optical applications to avoid this effect. Sapphire is also a material with optical refractive properties that balances wave transmission at all angles.

Industrial sapphires are created by melting alumina (Al2O3) at 2040 degrees Celsius and then promoting crystal growth through seed and careful environmental control, but there are many limitations to what can be done. The result is a bar - like a crystal block called boules, which has to be cut completely into usable shapes and sizes. Breeding has developed several unique growth methods, which differ in different qualities, sizes and costs. Czochralski - HEM-Kiropole method enables high optical quality of the sappers, EEG - Stephanov methods enable targeted growth and so on.

Sapphires and rubies can influence colour and optical properties without significantly affecting mechanical, thermal or electrical properties.