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Nexperia and United Automotive Electronic Systems Co., Ltd. Agree Comprehensive Partnership for Gallium Nitride

The program focuses on energy systems for electric vehicles with the aim of jointly developing GaN technology for automotive applications. The increasing demand for electricity in the automotive industry, especially in electric cars, requires high-power semiconductor technology such as GaN, which is becoming mainstream. This trend is underpinned by the growing demand for semiconductor power until 2021.

The United Arab Emirates has already started to deploy Nexperia's GaN FETs in a number of joint projects, including the development of a powerful and cost-effective electric vehicle system for the UAE. In addition to the production of the new electric car, Nexperia's GaN technology will also be supplied to support the application of reverse recovery charge (Qrr) technology in the automotive industry to reverse the recovery charge of QRR in electric vehicles.

The United Arab Emirates provides automakers with access to Nexperia's expertise in the manufacture of high-performance GaN FETs for the automotive industry. With its own global manufacturing facilities in China, Japan and the United States, Nex Xperia manufactures a wide range of GaN-based products for automotive, industrial and consumer markets with sophisticated and reliable mass production techniques manufactured to the AEC Q101 automotive standard.

With five technology centers in China, Nex Xperia, the world's largest GaN manufacturing company, has access to the most advanced technology and equipment in the industry. These sophisticated devices effectively provide high-quality engineering services, including the development, manufacture, testing and distribution of advanced electronic products and the production of high-quality electronic components.

We believe that the increased collaboration with GaN will help both companies to offer our customers the highest - quality, high - performance and low - cost of electronic products and services. The high performance of silicon-based GaN field effect transistors will play a key role in electrifying cars, and we recognize the need for more efficient and efficient use of the technology in the automotive industry.

We are pleased to work with Nexperia to develop an innovative electric vehicle system based on GaN technology, "said a UAES management spokesman. We intend to expand our investments and jointly create a high-performance, cost-effective and highly efficient power supply system. United Automotive Electronics Systems Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of United Auto Electronics Systems, Inc., has announced its full support for the development of the new product. Nex Xperia is a leading supplier of semiconductors for automotive applications with a strong presence in the automotive industry in Japan, Europe, Asia and the United States.

The partnership will help reduce the number of devices used, reduce costs, increase power density and increase the reliability and effectiveness of the entire system.

Epiluvac Supplies Cvd Reactors To Polish Research Group

Epiluvac in Lund, Sweden, has been awarded an order for the supply of CVD systems for its ER3 reactor. The system will be used for advanced semiconductor research and research and development of new materials and technologies will use the new technology as well as a number of other advanced materials such as ceramics.

Roger Nilsson, CTO at Epiluvac, said: "Reactor development began a few years ago in cooperation with Linkoping University. In recent years, the design has been refined into a brand new platform with a new reactor design and a range of new materials and technologies.

We also have a multi-system approach, in which two or more systems can be combined, which allows the user to optimise the chemistry of the individual reactors and thus achieve very high yields. From the very beginning, we developed an 8-inch wafer that required a new solution for controlling temperature, pressure, temperature and other parameters for each reactor, as well as flow rate.


The CVD-systems are designed with Epiluvac ER3 reactors for 8-inch wafers epitaxy of SiC and GaN. They are intended to be used for R&D in new materials technology.

It is equipped with an automatic robot handler that connects the two reactors. To increase production capacity, the wafers are preheated and cooled in each reactor and then preheated in the other reactor.

The new ER3 also has a patented function that minimizes wafer foil, and customers can add in-situ measurements in the form of in-situ measurements of temperature, pressure and other parameters. Epiluvac offers a turnkey solution that includes a system to put the system into operation for fundamental and epitaxial growth. This is the first of its kind in Europe and the world, "he added.

The device is used in electric vehicles and is used to produce more efficient electronic components. It is also used to manufacture components with high - performance, low - cost - up to - weight for electric cars and buses.

Do dopant rings on silicon wafer surface affect the performance of a wafer?

Dopant rings are the same as striation marks and they sometimes occur in heavily doped silicon wafer surface where one can visibly see small insignificant differences in doping concentration throughout the crystal. To our knowledge they are cosmetic and do not affect the properties of the wafer.


Prime Grade Wafers meet all of the SEMI organizations standards and Test Grade Silicon Wafers do not. 


Why Silicon Could Replace Carbon Anonode in EV Batteries

One huge benefit of silicon anode is it has three times the energy density of carbon. Currently the only way to get more power/efficiency of a batter is to increase the amount of material per unit, thus driving up the battery’s energy density. Silicon’s main drawback is that it will silicon anode to replace carbon in ev batteriesexpand 300% when charging and contract 300% when discharging.

Researchers are currently working on a complex 3D structure to keep the silicon under uniform pressure so that it does not expand to any size that could cause battery failure.

This 3-D architecture allows us to constrain that expansion in a very uniform way within the cell that provides the battery with a long lifecycle. A Silicon anode battery could hold around 50% more energy than what's currently on the market. The result would be smaller, lighter electronics devices with much higher endurance.

Silicon Wafer based Laser

John Bowers, a professor of electrical and materials at UC Santa Barbara, pioneered a way to integrate a laser onto a silicon wafer fifteen years ago. This technology is now widely used in conjunction with other silicon photonics devices to replace copper-wire interconnects which once linked servers at data centers. It dramatically increases energy efficiency, which is important at a time where data traffic is increasing by approximately 25% annually.

The Bowers group has been working with Tobias J. Kippenberg, at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), for several years. This collaboration is part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA), Direct On-Chip Digital Optical Synthesizers (DODOS). The "microcombs" were discovered by the Kippenberg group. They are a series low-noise and highly stable laser lines. Each line of the laser comb can contain information, increasing the number of data that can easily be sent using a single laser.

Recent demonstrations showed that a number of teams were able to create compact combs by placing both silicon nitride-ring-resonator and semiconductor laser chips very close together. The laser and resonator were separate devices that were made separately and placed close to each other. This was a time-consuming and costly process that is not easily scalable.

The Bowers laboratory has collaborated with the Kippenberg laboratory to create an integrated on-chip semiconductor resonator and laser capable of producing a microcomb. A paper titled "Laser soliton microcombs heterogeneously integrated on silicon(link is external)," published in the new issue of the journal Science describes the labs' success in becoming the first to achieve that goal.

Soliton microcombs, which emit optical frequency lines in mutually coherent phases, are optical frequency combs with the ability to produce laser lines that are constant and unchanging relative to one another. This technology can be used in optical timing, metrology, and sensing. Recent field demonstrations include multi-terabit-per-second optical communications, ultrafast light detection and ranging (LiDAR), neuromorphic computing, and astrophysical spectrometer calibration for planet searching, to name several. This powerful tool requires extremely high-power lasers, expensive optical coupling, and exceptional precision in order to work.

Chao Xiang (postdoctoral researcher) explained that a laser microcomb works on the principle of a distributed feedback laser producing one laser line. The line passes through an optical phase control and enters the microring resonator. This causes the power intensity of the light to increase as it travels around the ring. Non-linear optical effects can occur when the intensity exceeds a certain threshold. This causes the laser line to produce two identical lines on each side. Each of these "sidelines" creates another, resulting in a cascade generation of laser-line generators. "You end up having a series mutually coherent frequency combs," Xiang stated -- and a greatly expanded capability to transmit data.

This research allows semiconductor lasers to seamlessly integrate with low-loss optical micro-resonators. "Low-loss" is because light can travel through the waveguide without losing any of its intensity over time. The device can be controlled entirely by electricity and no optical coupling is necessary. The new technology is able to be commercially scaled because it can make thousands of devices from a single wafer by using industry-standard complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS-compatible) techniques. Researchers stated that their approach "paves the way to large-volume, low cost manufacturing of chip-based frequency combiners for next-generation high capacity transceivers and datacenters, as well as mobile platforms"

The main challenge when making the device was that both the semiconductor laser (which generates the comb) and the resonator (which creates it), had to be constructed on different materials platforms. Lasers cannot be made with materials other than those listed in the Periodic Table's III and V groups. The best combs are made from silicon nitride. "So, we had the challenge of putting them all together on one wafer," Xiang said.

The researchers used UCSB's heterogeneous process for making high-performance lasers on a silicon substrate, and their EPFL collaborators' ability to create record-setting high-Q silicon-nitride microresonators using their "photonic damascene" process. They worked sequentially on the same wafer. This wafer-scale process, which is different from making individual devices and then combing them one-by-one, allows thousands of devices to come out of a single wafer measuring 100 mm in diameter. It also gives the ability to scale up production levels beyond that of the 200mm or 300-mm industry-standard substrates.

The device must function properly if the laser, resonator, and optical phase between them are controlled in order to create a coupled system that is based on "self-injection locking". Xiang explained how the laser output is partially reflected by the microresonator. The laser is locked to the micro-resonator when a certain phase is reached between the laser's light and the back-reflected light of the resonator.

Back-reflected light is not good for laser performance but it is essential to generate the microcomb. The laser light locked triggers soliton formation within the resonator. It also reduces frequency instability or laser light noise. This transforms something bad into something positive. The team was able not only to create the first integrated laser soliton microcomb on a single chip but also the first narrow linewidth laser sources that have multiple channels on one chip.

"Optical comb generation is a very exciting field that is moving at a rapid pace. It has applications in optical clocks and high-capacity optical networks, as well as many spectroscopic uses," Bowers, who is the Fred Kavli Chair for Nanotechnology and director of the College of Engineering’s Institute for Energy Efficiency, said. "The missing element was a self-contained chip which includes both the pump laser as well as the optical resonator. This key element was demonstrated and should allow for rapid adoption.

Xiang said, "I believe this work will become very large." He said that the potential of this technology reminds him of how putting lasers onto silicon 15 years ago helped both research and commercialization of silicon-photonics. He said that Intel has shipped millions of transceiver units per year because this transformative technology was commercialized. Future silicon photonics that use co-packaged optics are likely to be a powerful driver for transceivers with higher capacities and a wide range of optical channels.

Xiang stated that the current comb produces approximately twenty to thirty usable comb line and that the goal is to increase that number. "Hopefully, one hundred combined lines will be possible from each laser-resonator with low power consumption," he said.

Based on the soliton's low energy use and ability to provide a large amount of high-purity optical comb line lines for data communications, said Xiang: "We believe our achievement could be the backbone of efforts in optical frequency comb technology in many areas, including efforts in keeping up with fast-growing data traffic, and hopefully slowing down the growth in energy consumption in mega-scaled datacenters."


How is Water Used in Semiconductor Manufacturing?

In semiconductor manufacturing, water plays an important role in both the design and process of the fabrication of semiconductors. It has a vital role in many processes, but especially in those processes where extreme heat is involved. This is because water can be contaminated by several impurities during the fabrication process, resulting in excess heat which can damage the electronics when it is processed. Furthermore, the entire chip may become affected, which will require another replacement. However, the use of water is mandatory in many of these processes, and no other method can guarantee absolute cleanliness and purity.

How is water used in semiconductor manufacturing

How is water used in semiconductor manufacturing? The entire fabrication process begins with the removal of the contaminates from the microchips. This is done through ultrafiltration, where water molecules are detached from the semiconductors using powerful chemicals. Sub-micron filtration is then performed, removing any present contaminants. Ultrafiltration is the process used in all chip production process, as it is the only method which ensures pure water at all times.

The most common contaminant found in semiconductors is bacteria. All other contaminants are removed by other means, and then further purification using ultrafiltration. The most common microorganisms found in semiconductors are yeast and bacteria, which cause great harm to the fabric during the manufacturing process. To keep these microorganisms at bay, various methods of water treatment are employed.

The most common way of water treatment is by use of high pressure water treatment systems. These systems pump large amounts of water through the fabrication process, forcing it down to the final fabrication area. This is achieved via gravity or by physical means. The wastewater treatment systems are designed to remove all forms of contaminants, leaving behind the essential minerals which are essential for the manufacture of fabs.

A secondary wastewater treatment method is used in order to ensure cleanliness of the water used for fabrication. This method is called submicron filtration. This is the most commonly used high-purity water treatment method worldwide. It removes the microorganisms from the wastewater, which are too small to be able to be seen with the naked eye. In fact, many scientists believe that it is impossible to see any microorganism in the human body.

Another common method used for water use in the semiconductor manufacturing industry is deionization. This process removes various salts and metals from the semiconductors during the manufacturing process. The salts and metals are removed so as to reduce the contamination in the working environment. During this process, there will be no solutes left over which can be harmful to humans. Water which is deionized is not suitable for drinking as it will turn color and is tasteless.

The third type of water used in semiconductor manufacturing is ultraviolet (UV) water purification. This is the best method to get rid of microorganisms and contaminants from the semiconductors. The procedure involves using ultra violet light to destroy all types of microorganisms and contaminants present in the water. However, this is the most expensive method available to get rid of contaminants. It also has the lowest water quality rating because most of the ultraviolet radiation is wasted in heating the water which is then used to fill chips.

How is water used in semiconductor manufacturing? To maintain high quality performance in manufacturing processes, it is important that there is an ultra-pure water present during the manufacturing process itself. It is estimated that the average water used is about seven million gallons for every one million gallons processed. In addition to this, in order to improve the life span of the semiconductors, the water used must be free from any pollutants. Therefore, it is essential to avoid all sources of pollution that can harm the environment during the process.


Video: Reclycling Water for Semiconductor Fabrication


Crystalline Silicon Helps Scientists Research the Mysterious 5th Dimension

Silicon wafers have been used in everything from computer chips to automobile tires for quite some time. The properties of the element make it ideal for the use of engineers and scientists as it is the basis of all matter whether it is solid liquid, or gas. But what is really more interesting is that its uses extend far beyond the known universe. In fact, it plays a significant role in helping scientists explore the mysteries of the universe.

crystalline silicon used to research the fifth force

In much the same way as electrons play a vital role in moving energy through an atom, different types of particles also need to move energy inside a vacuum or other sort of container. If you think about it, you will realize that the strength of magnets relies on the strength of the particles they are attracted to. The same holds true for the other elements in the Standard Model of the universe. For example, the neutrons that make up protons have an extremely weak pull on other neutrons which ultimately leads to the instability of the atomic nucleus.

As mentioned earlier, the existence of neutrons relies on the strength of electromagnetic radiation. The existence of photons, which are particles of light, also depend on the strength of the fifth force. This means that if two different kinds of atoms make up different kinds of photons, and if they are close enough in proximity, these photons will act in a manner similar to the fifth force, resulting in the generation of energy.

In order to study the workings of this fifth force, scientists use a special kind of laboratory known as a neutron microscope. A neutron microscope works by shining a strong beam of neutrons onto the atoms which make up a sample. The light interacts with the electrons and thus researchers can learn about the behavior of these tiny particles. The different kinds of atoms have different electrons, which can be measured using this technique. This method is useful in identifying the different elements of a sample, and in identifying the atom which is the most similar to another.

When researchers work with silicon, they do so because it is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust. It makes up 90 percent of the soil we walk upon. In addition, it makes up the backbone of all life on Earth, from bacteria to marine algae. Researchers are aware of the importance of the element for life but they are not entirely sure how it forms, or how it exists within the Earth's crust.

With the help of silicon, researchers have been able to create a model of the atom which helps them better understand its structure. By finding out how silicon forms at the atomic level, they were able to create a way of visualizing the atom and how various different kinds of silicon atoms bond together. The atoms of silicon are arranged in a particular way, and the different kinds of bonds which bind them form a lattice. As this lattice is made up of smaller units, there are ways in which the researchers can visualize the atoms of silicon more clearly.

The lattice structure of silicon atoms makes it unique among other elements in the Earth's crust. The lattice of silicon is a five-dimensional world in itself, which means that it has spatial dimensions as well. Researchers have found that the five-dimensional nature of silicon goes beyond the regular 3D modeling of the element in our regular two-dimensional world. They have also discovered that there are many different types of silicon, which have their own distinct spatial properties. By understanding the properties of these different types of silicon atoms, the lattice structure of silicon can be explored.

When looking into the structure of atoms at different spatial scales, scientists have used this method to study not only the electron orbitals, but also the bonding of hydrogen atoms with carbon atoms. This method is called superluminal electrodial theory, and it is based on the notion that elementary particles have an alternative orbital, which is known as their "orbital tunneling shell". Particles of high enough energy tend to occupy these shells, which gives rise to a stronger attraction between the two atomic particles. This way, the researchers were able to explore the five-dimensional structure of silicon at the atomic level.


What are Silicon Wafers in Layman's Terms?

If you want to understand what is silicon wafers, it is essential to understand the way that they are created. Ultimately, a silicon chip is a semiconductor, and silicon wafers are used in almost every electronic device today. Here are some of the benefits of using this type of material: Read on to find out more! To make semiconductors, a silicon ingot is a large piece of silicon that is grown to a specific size and specification. A single crystal silicon wafer can take from one week to a month to grow.

A silicon wafer is used as a semiconductor in electronics and is used in the manufacturing of integrated circuits. An integrated circuit is a stacked stack of electronic components that work together to perform a function. An integrated circuit can contain hundreds of millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors, and is crucial to the function of many types of electronic equipment. But how do you go about creating one? Here are some tips to get started:

Silicon wafers are used in electronics, including semiconductor chips. They are inexpensive to produce, and their high purity is important for their efficiency. Because of their high purity, silicon wafers must be extremely pure to be effective in electronic devices. Impurities can affect the performance of solar cells and electronics. Even tiny disruptions can impede electron flow, so manufacturers must make sure that the silicon they are using is pure. Ideally, silicon wafers should be single crystals, but this is difficult to achieve in the real world.

Another important factor for the market is that the demand for renewable energy sources is increasing rapidly. This will result in more demand for silicon wafers and will further develop the semiconductor industry. So, what is the future of silicon wafers? In addition to being able to use them for solar energy, they are also essential for the development of modern electronics. In fact, silicon is the most widely used semiconductor material today, so it is essential to ensure that your production processes are as efficient as possible.

In semiconductor manufacturing, silicon is the most common material. But it can be used in a wide variety of applications. Currently, silicon wafers are a popular part of computers. And the technology behind them is rapidly expanding. However, it is not an easy task to manufacture a semiconductor. In fact, the process can be highly complex, and engineers need to know the requirements and benefits of their product. It is not just the materials that are used in semiconductors, but also the processes that are applied to the fabrication of these devices.

Several publications have been written on the history of silicon in silicon wafers. The first one is Levy, Roland Albert. The second is Grovenor, C. Nishi, Yoshio. The history of the silicon wafers is an essential part of the technology. The two are important for the industry. They provide the foundation for a vast variety of electronic devices. When it comes to the technology behind silicon, they play a major role in every industry.

The first step in creating a semiconductor is to make it a semiconductor. The most basic form of silicon is a silicon chip, which is a type of semiconductor. It is a crystalline material, and the most common type of semiconductor is silicon. These are typically rectangular, but some people prefer to use a larger variety of shapes, such as a hexagonal one. You can create a device of this material in many ways, and it is important to consider the material's composition.

The main difference between a silicon ingot and a silicon wafer is the process by which it is grown. The first step is to make a silicon ingot. This is a flat sheet of material that is made from silicon. It is then grown in a machine. Usually, it takes a few days to grow a single crystal. This is not a difficult task and requires some experience. Once you know the fundamentals of how a semiconductor is made, you can start making an informed decision.

Silicon wafers are a critical component of semiconductor manufacturing. They are the most common type of semiconductor and are used in a variety of devices. They help to increase the efficiency of solar cells by increasing the area of the solar cell. They are also used in the manufacturing of solar cells. The brittleness of silicon wafers can be a problem for many manufacturers, especially when nearing the completion phase.

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What is Moore's Law?

Moore's law is not a natural law, but one made up to provide future expectation that the density of a microchip will double, on average, every two years. This decreases the chips speed while increasing its performce.

The cost of the chip is miniscule to the designing of the chip architecture. The smaller you go the harder it is to fabricate how the electrons flow and what connects to what.

It's often believed that Moore's Law will soon end. However this seems highly unlikely as engineers are working hard to extend the future of the law.

Silicon Wafer Blog

Will Gallium Nitride (GaN) Replace Silicon (Si)?

What is Micropipe Defect Density?

What Silicon Wafer Should I Use for Spin Coating?

What Silicon Wafers are Used To Fabricate Electrodes Used In Lithium Ion Batteries?

What is Sum Frequency Generation, and What Wafers do I Use for Research?

Wafers Used to Fabricate Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL)?

What Are The Advantage and Disadvantages of MOCVD?

Differences Between Amorphous and Crystalline Solids?

What Silicon Wafers Are Used for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)?

What Silicon Wafers Can Be Used for Helium Beam Research?

Silicon and The Process of Ion Implantation

What Glass Wafers Used for Optical Darkfield Imaging

What Silicon Wafer Should I use to Fabricate Single Electron Transistors?

What Substrate Should I Use for Underwater Solar Energy Generation?

What Silicon Wafers are Used for Anisotropic Wet Etching?

What are Silicon Electronics and What do They Look Like?

What are Silicon Wafer Crystalline Defects?

What are the Pros/Cons of Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells?

How Do Photovoltaics Work?

What is Space Based Semiconductor Chip Fabricaton?

What are the advantages of Silicon Germanium (SiGe) in semiconductor technology?

What Silicon do I Use for Optical Filters in Transmission?

What GaN HEMT Wafers Can I use for Power Applications?

What is the Sheet Resistiance of Graphene on PET Samples?

What is Germanium (Ge)?

How to Grow Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanowires with Gold (Au) Coated Silicon Wafers?

What N-type Polysilicon Wafers are Used in MOCVD depositions?

What Silicon Wafers are Used Transmit THz Wavelengths 

What Silicon Wafers do I use to Grow Pollen on?

What Float Zone Silicon Wafers for Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements?

What do Silicon Wafer Wells Look Like?

What is the dielectric properties and optical properties of 200mm Sapphire Wafers?

What is Cryogenic Design?

Why Use Highly-Doped Silicon Wafers?

What is the Thermal Behavior of Sapphire Wafer?

What Wafers are used for MEMS Based Acoustic Resonators

What is Black Silicon Wafer Applications?

Advantages and Disadvantages of MOVCD

Silicium Wafers for German Semiconductor Industry

Silicon Carbide Wafer Supplier

Silicon Wafer Materials

We have the blogs to help answer your questions!

We can answer any substrate question! Just ask!

Silicon Wafer Blog

Top Things You Should Know About Silicon Wafers

What is Optical Grade Silicon?

What Are Bonded Silicon on Insulator Layers on Your Capacitors?

Top Things You Should know About Silicon Wafers

What are Coin Roll Silicon Wafers?

What is Multicrystalline Silicon?

What is X-Ray Diffraction?

What is Dislocation Density?

What is Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)?

Silicon Fabrication Methods

Can Graphene be Used In Making Airplanes?

Best Silicon Wafer Etching Processes

Things You Should Know about Silicon Wafer

What is Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography and What Silicon Wafer Specs Do you Use?

How do you make Silicon Wafers into Computer Chips

Will Gallium Nitride (GaN) Replace Silicon (Si)?

What is Micropipe Defect Density?

Why are Silicon wafers Round?

Why is Silicon a Widely Used Semiconductor?

Why Graphene Processors are needed for Quantum Computers

Why is it so hard and hence expensive to control the TTV under 0.5 µm?

What is the Density of Silicon?

How Many Silicon Solar Panels Needed to Power The World!?

What Silicon Wafer Spec Would you Use for Research and Development of Inkjet Printers?

III-V Substrates Will Dramatically Change Cloud Storage for Greater Profits

Is the Composition of Silicon Germanium (SiGe) Conrollable?

Why are Microchips Made from Silicon?

What is Graphene Used In?

How Fast Is Gallium Nitride (GaN) Semiconductor Device Market Growing?

Can Gallium Nitride UV Devices Help Mitigate COVID-19 and Other Viruses?

What Silicon Wafer Specs Should I Use Femtosecond Spectroscopy?

What Silicon Carbide (SiC) Wafer should i use for a van der Pauw sensor?

When Will Silicon Carbide (SiC) Replace Silicon (Si) in Power Electronics

Can you Deposit Metal Films on Sapphire?

What Is A Semiconductor and Why Should You Care?

Graphene Deposited on Silicon for the First Time Will Result in Faster, Low Power Semiconductors

Where Can I Learn About Silicon & Semiconductors?

What is the difference between Research and Prime Grade Silicon Carbide (SiC) Wafers?

Do you offer glass wafers that are infrared compatible?

The Truth About Bulk Semiconductor Crystals

What Silicon Wafer Should I Use for Micro-Machine Waveguides?

What is the Shockley Queisser Limit

What is Photonics-based Computing?

Where Can You Find InGaP Substrates?

Can GaN Substrates Make Ultraviolet LEDs to Fight The Covid-19 Virus

GaN Epitaxy Wafers to Combat Corovirus using UVC LEDs

How to Prepare Silicon Wafers

A Quick Overview of Silicon-on-Insulator Fabrication

How to Pick a Silicon Wafer Supplier

How to Make a Computer Chip

Why is Gettering Important to Wafer Fabrication?

Float Zone (FZ) Silicon Wafer Facts

Advantages and Disadvantages of Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

Will Silicon Chiplets to Replace Traditional Mother Boards?

What Wafers are used in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Sensors?

Silicon Microphone Defined

What are HRFZ Silicon Wafers?

What Silicon Wafer Spec Should I use?

Thin Thermal Oxide on Silicon to Fabricate One Atom Thick Transistors

1.2 Trillion Transistors on a 12 Inch Silicon Wafer

What is Scanning Tunneling Microscopy?

What Is An Optical Resonator?

C-Si Wafers Used for Hologram Research

What Sapphire Wafers Are Used for Oil Immersion-Microscopy?

What Wafers are used to Calibrate Film Thicknesses?

Why are Silicon Carbide (SiC) Better than Sapphire and Glass for Bonding with Silicon?

What Carrier Wafers are Used in Plasma Etch Systems?

What GaN Specs are Used for RF Schottky Barrier Diode application (SBD)?

What are high-power RF Avalanche Transit Time diode?

What is Silicon's Refractive Index?

How to Measure Silicon Wafer Resistivity Using Four Point Probe?

What Silicon Wafers are Used to Fabricate Internet of Things (IoT) Devices?

How do you Prepare Silicon Wafers for Reactive-Ion Etching (RIE)?

What is a Compound Semiconductor?

How to Model Calibration of Poly Si Thin Film Growth?

What are Nanochip?

What is Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)?

What are Nanocomposite?

What Wafer Spec are Use to Fabricate Membrane-Based Nanocalorimeter Devices?

What Are Silicon Nitride Wafer Uses?

What is A-Axis Sapphire?

Challenges in Testing and Characterizing Silicon Photonic Devices

What is a SiC Wafer?

What is a MOSFET?

What is CMOS?

What Threatens Moore's Law?

What is the Difference Between Borosilicate and Soda Lime Glass?

What is a MOCVD Reactor?

Does Adding Carbon to Silicon Monocrystalline Lower the Melting Point?

What is Difference Between Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline Solar Panels?

What is the Difference Between LPCVD and PECVD?

Can We Turn an Electronic Chip Into a Photonic One?

What is Carrier Concentration?

What Silicon Wafers are used for Integrated Passive Device (IPD)?

What are The Uses of The Piezoelectric Effect?

How safe is it to work in a semiconductor fab?

What is Vicinal Silicon?

What is the Role of a Silicon Validation Engineer?

What Are The Differences Between Planar and Pattern Film Wafers

What is Photoresist?

Silicon Wafer Carrier Mobility

What is a Silicon Boule?

How Microchips Are Made?

What is Van Der Waals Epitaxy?

What is Anistropic Silicon?

Silicon Wafers for Thin-Film Transistor Research

How Do you Design Integrated Circuits?

What is Lithography?

What is the Difference Between Borophene Vs Graphene?

What Is Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS)?

What Is Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Wafers?

What is Parametric Test in Semiconductor Manufacturing?

What are Microfluidic Devices?

What is Semiconductor Spectroscopy?

What are Photonic Applications?

What is Lab-on-a-Chip?

What Substrates/Wafers are used to Fabricate Multilayer Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Devices?

What is NMOS Transistor?

What is Anti-reflection (AR) Coating?

Wafers Used in Millimeter-Wave Photoconductive Switches

What (643) Oriented Silicon Wafers are used for Epitaxial Electro-deposition Research

What is the Infrared transmission of Silicon Wafer?

What Wafers are Used for THz Applications?

What Is Orthotropic Mechanical Properties in Wafer Plane?

4 Inch Silicon Wafers Used for Mesoporous Silicon Nanoparticle

What is HF Galvanostatic Charging?

What Turns On and Off a Hall Effect Reed Switch?

What are Types of Semiconductor Lasers and Their Applications?

What is Wafer Scale Testing?

What is High Refractive Index Glass?

What is Macroporous Silicon?

What is Sapphire's Surface Microroughness?

What are Miller Indices?

How Do You Test a Polaris Hall Effect Sensor?

What is Graphyne?

What is a Silicon Bolometer and How Do You Use It?

What is a Darlington Transistor?

How to Fabricate a Silicon Readout IC

What is Open and Closed Channel Microfluidics?

What are Recent Advances in Photonic Crystals

What Substrates are Used for Microreactor Array Device Research?

What are The Advantages of a Silicon Carbide MOSFET

Why is a Silicon Semiconductor Used in a Thermistor?

What are Acoustic Wave (SAW) Applications?

Surface Acoustic Waves for Dual Biosensors for Cancer Cell Detection

What is Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)?

What is Electron Beam Evaporation?

What are Graphene Electronics?

What are Right Handed and Left Handed Quartz?

What is Amorphous Silicon?

What is Crystalline Silicon?

What are Silicon Biosensors?

What are Silicon Modulators?

What is Microscopy Imaging?

What is the Optical Or Stress Data for Sputtering Silicon Wafers?

What is UV Lithography?

What is Mesa Etching?

What Are the Challenges and Limitations in Semiconductors and Nanophotonics?

Where can I find Silicon Backgrinding Service?

What are the Differences Between Between Intrinsic & Extrinsic Semiconductors?

What does an Organic Transistor Look Like?

Understanding Failure Analysis in Semiconductor Synthesis and Defect Science

Silicon Carbide (SiC) Space Based Radiation Detector

What is the Surface Finish of Silicon Substrates?

What Types Of Silicon Transistors Are Available?

What is 3C Silicon Carbide?

What Is the Width of the Base Region in a Transistor?

What is Dry Etching in Semiconductors?

What are Epitaxial Structure Processes?

What are Five Development Trends of Photovoltaic High-Frequency Inverters?

Can you 3D Print Semiconductor Devices?

What is SU-8 Lithography?

What are Silicon Nanowires (SiNWs)?

What is SU-8 Photolithography?

What Material Will Replace Silicon?

What is Condensed Matter?

What is Swept Quartz?

Is Gallium Nitride More Efficient than Silicon?

How Do You Measure Wafer Uniformity?

What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Silicon and Germanium Diodes?

What is KOH Etching?

What is a Rocking Curve?

What is Wafer Level Packaging?

What does SAW Grade mean?

What are Silicon Wafer Pressure Sensors?

What are NAND Wafers?

What is a Wafer Plate?

What is UV Grade Sapphire Window?

What is Lithium Niobate Thin Film?

How Large Can a Single Sheet of Graphene Be?

What Wafers are Used for Ring Resonator Research?

What is Materials Science Engineering?

What is a Silicon Dioxide Wafer?

What do Device Research Labs Do?

What is Poly Silicon Carbide (SiC)?

Silicon Wafers Used Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (TIES)

What Is a Semiconductor Engineer?

How Are Silicon Wafers Measured to Be a Centimeter Long?

What Substrate is Used to Fabricate Wearable Sensors?

What is a Four Point Probe?

Which N-Doped Silicon Wafer Has the Highest Electric Conductivity?

What is a Silicon Filter?

What is a Silicon Membrane?

What is Electron Beam Lithography?

What Wafers are Used in Single Particle Spectroscopy?

What is Dielectric Behavior?

What is a Transmission Electron Microscope?

What Types of Chips Made of Silicon Carbide?

What is Silicon Lattice Constant?

What is Graphene Used For?

Will Graphene Change the Future?

What is Spectroscopy?

What is Holding Back Graphene Mass Adoption?

What are Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) Applications?

What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Silicon Solar Cells?

Why is Silicon Used in a Solar Cell?

What are Ceramic Wafers?

What are he Best Semiconductor and Electronics Companies in the World

How do you determine the cost of a Silicon Wafer?

What are The Benefits of Calcium Fluoride Wafers?

Understanding the Thermal Properties of SiliconUnderstanding the Thermal Properties of Silicon

What is Silicon on Glass (SoG) Wafers?

What Glass Substrates Should You Use in Your Device Research?

What is Wafer Fabrication?

How Much Does a Silicon Wafer Cost?

What is Silicon resistivity?

What is Silicon Oxide?

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate Thin Film Solar Panels?

What is Black Lithium Niobate?

What is Silicon Epitaxy?

What are Magnesium Doped Wafers Used For?

What Are Epitaxially Grown Devices?

What Are Semiconductor Devices?

How do you Polish Subrates using Chemical Mechanical Polishing?

What is a Silicon Photodetector?

What Substrates are used for Far-IR Transmission Experiments?

Substrate Recommended for Mid-Infrared Transparency

Confused as to which specification you need for your research? We have engineers that can help you!

Stacking Gallium Nitride & Silicon Transistors On Silicon Wafers

How UniversityWafer Helps Medical Research?

We are very active in the medical research field. We provide the highest quality, lowest cost substrates for the following:

Graphene Based Sensors

University of Illinois researchers have used our silicon wafers with thermal oxide to fabricate a micrometer-size graphene-based sensor to measure oxygen permeation through pulmonary membranes.


Biosensors to Detect Proteins in Saliva

Borofloat (33) glass substrates coated with a thin film of chrome, gold and titanium to fabricate an IDE pattern used to develop an interdigitated electrode sensor platform targeting the Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein 2 (PfHRP2) protein in saliva samples.


Remodeling Cytoskeletons

Polished silicon wafers were used to determine if cells cultured in a 3 Dimensional (3D) matrix have a softening behavior and to link it to cytoskeletal remodeling.


Micro-Droplets for Cell Encapsulation

Biosample encapsulation using droplet microfluidics technique using 4 inch silicon wafers to fabcricate a photomask to generate micrometer sized emulsions within microchannels.


Silicon Nitride Wafers Used in Nanopore Sensing Device for DNA Detection

Researchers have used a thin nitride membrane will seperate two buffers. One buffer will contain DNA. There will be a single pore in the membrane. When applying a bias across the pore, DNA will begin to translocate and we can detect them by the drop in current.

Silicon wafers will be used as the substrate upon which we can deposit silicon nitride. Ultimately, the silicon will be etched away, leaving only the nitride membrane.

The following bare wafer was used. UniversityWafer, Inc. then deposited the nitride.

Item# 2345 Silicon 100mm P /B <100> 1-20 300um DSP

Fabricating 4 inch 500nm Crystalline Gallium Phosphide (GaP) Film on ~500um Quartz

To grow monocrystalline GaP 500nm thick, you need to grow it on a substrate that is lattice matched to GaP. Both Quartz and Sapphire are far away from that.

By MOCVD, one can grow GaP on Silicon (Si) - Lattice constants are GaP: 0.54505nm, Si: 0.54310nm. The cost would be about $2,000 for 500nm of GaP on 2"Ø Si wafer.

If your objective is to grow GaP on an insulator then consider growing it on high resistivity Silicon with Ro > 20KOhmcm.

Another possibility is to grow Thermal Oxide (SiO2) on a Silicon wafer and then GaP on SiO2.
Thermal Oxide is close to being monocrystalline and so maintains the lattice spacing of Si, that is 0.54310. This is in contrast to Quartz which exhibits Lattice constants of 0.49137 and0.54050.

I dare not estimate the cost of GaP/SiO2/Si because I do not know of a facility that has actually achieved such Epi growth Theoretically it is possible and chances are that it can be done.
Likely I can get an MOCVD facility to take it on but only as a "best effort" research project.

Graphene-Based Device Research

As you probably know we grow graphene in our reactor via Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) method. We use a 18μm thick copper foil as catalyst and methane as a carbon source. We usually use a ferric chloride solution to etch the copper foil and we use a PMMA assisted WET transfer process to transfer the graphene film onto the final substrate.

Please, find attached the TDS for "Graphenea Monolayer Graphene film on various substrates" and the Raman spectra of one of our batches.

We also produce Graphene Oxides by chemical exfoliation of graphite stone. We use our patented modification of the Hummer's method.

Please request the spec sheets 253557.

Alumina Wafers for HDPCVD Cleaning Application

Research client asks: Do you have 4" single flat ceramic alumina wafers? I've got a HDPCVD cleaning application that I think needs alumina dummy wafers?

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Roughness(Polished):      Ra 0.02~0.05nm

Cut one flat:      32mm ±2.0mm

How Silicon Wafers are used to grow Nanotubes

Nano-systems technologies present the pathway to the future. This is due to the ability of such systems to address the inefficiencies evident in the currently existing technologies. Researchers are laboring towards addressing the challenge of power consumption required by electronic devices. There is a general requirement of powerful devices that use limited power. Currently, all the possibilities have been explored thus necessitating new technologies altogether. Another inefficiency that has to be addressed is the memory issue, where minute devices are needed that can hold more and more information compared to the existing devices. Other challenges are computing power and connectivity. To build nanotubes, we have to apply new and emerging technologies.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are formed by rolling a sheet of graphene forming a nanocylinder that has a diameter of one, one and a half nanometers. The nanocylinders can then be combined in tens of thousands within a specified diameter. Given that they are really small, Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFET) can be made from them. The transistor does operate similarly to the silicon transistor. Silicon transistors can be converted to carbon nanotube field-effect transistors by replacing the silicon with carbon nanotubes.

The current technologies use two-dimensional chips. Given that data has to be accessed one bit at a time, the approach is considered to be relatively slow. Better results can be obtained by stacking chips together. Two-dimensional substrates are physically stacked together with two-dimensional chips. Through silicon vias (TSVs) glue the different two-dimensional chips and wafers to each other. The TSVs are characterized as to be large and sparsely arranged. In simple terms, monolithic three-dimensional integration is achieved when different layers are built over each other on the same stirring substrate. No form of bonding is needed while carrying out the process. Monolithic integration is advantageous as it allows one to use nanoscale interlayer vias (ILVs) that currently exist in metal wires in chips today to connect all the different vertical layers.

Fabricating a silicon transistor requires way too high temperatures of about 1100 degrees Celsius to 1200 degrees Celsius. With this, it is impractical to stack silicon layers on top of the existing layer as the layer’s underneath would melt before the next layers have been built. With the new technology on nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes can be made at temperatures below two hundred degrees Celsius. There also exists a variety of memories where one can select from i.e. RRAM, CBRAM, STTMRAM.

Silicon wafers are used as the main basic bottom layer since it is fully compatible with the existing processing and design infrastructure. Also, silicon involves much processing in its fabrication process. The next process involves building metal wires as often as needed. After about three layers, the fourth layer can be made of carbon nanotube transistors. The result is a computer that can do several things. We begin with establishing a layer of memory circuitry, then we build accelerators that aid in supporting the chips embedded computing. After having layers of metal wires, we can have a layer of Carbon nanotubes. This new technology results in increased functionality as they can accommodate the incorporation of sensors such as gas sensors to be embedded in the chip.

With today's need for embedded computing and machine learning, large chunks of information have to be captured from the outside world and interpreted for out good. Also, new ways have to be found in handling activities such as medical screening and testing procedures that necessitate nanotechnology. A study on nanotubes is key to the future.

Consumer Products that use Silicon Wafers

Electronic products that are bought by the consumer for use at a personal level are broadly classified as electronic consumer products. These products have to be physically present and do possess an integration feature to the current technology allowing for interaction with the user in a simple way. Microwaves, television, electric iron box, cellphones, and audio systems are examples of such products. The products use microelectronics integrated with the recent technology to meet the expected functionality. Even though the products may appear simple by physical appearance, they are rather complex in their underlying system. Besides, these products do not provide a few clues about the product itself or its operation (Jasper van Kuijk, 2017). The components that make consumer products may be grouped into three classes i.e. the core product, the extended product, and lastly the symbiotic elements. The picture below illustrates the three categorization classes of a consumer product.

electronic products that use silicon wafers

Semiconductor materials used in making electronic devices are made using silicon wafers. In appearance, the wafers are made to be extremely flat disk-shaped, and mirror surfaced. Wafers can be categorized as the flattest items in the world as they are free from miniature surface irregularities. Since the 1960s silicon has been a reliable raw material choice in the manufacture of semiconductors. To date, about ninety-five percent of the devices that are existing in the market are made out of silicon. The worldwide wafer market for the year 2019 was estimated to stand at $9.85 billion and is expected to grow by $3.79 billion by the year 2025 (Contello, 2020). Semiconductors have been the building block of the current modern technology.

The current trend today is that the desire for electronic devices that are comparatively smaller, improved functionality, and faster than the ones existing today. This thus necessitates that the devices should be able to hold a higher number of transistors to aid it support additional features such as wireless computing. Miniaturization has further been propelled by the need for more compact electronics by the market. The ever-changing technology is availing alternatives to silicon though for a few applications. Despite the advancements, silicon still dominates. Integrated circuits used to power computers, microwaves, refrigerators, meters, or phones among other devices essentially use silicon. Consumer products such as virtual reality kits, drones, and smartwatches are predicted to be some of the key products that will expand the market for silicon wafers (Contello, 2020).

Different regions are trying hard to dominate the respective markets despite the existing hurdles. The Asia Pacific region tops the list of the largest market. With support from the respective administrations, the silicon wafer market is expected to have an upward trend. With the advent of the 5G technology, silicon wafer production is expected to increase to meet the expected high demand for smartphones supporting the 5G network. The new technology in place provides an opportunity for the entry of new consumer products thus there is a need for the development and improvement of the silicon wafer production. Firms are now restructuring their operations and focusing on specialization on specific wafer size diameters to have a competitive edge over their counterparts (Contello, 2020).

To convert a silicon crystal ingot to a wafer with the required quality standards, various processes have to be done. First, the single-crystal ingot has to be divided to form thin disk-shaped wafers. Then the edges of the wafer are profiled. The third process involves lapping or grinding to flatten the wafer surface. Then a chemical process is used to eliminate the processing damage existing on the wafer while minimizing mechanical damage. Next, a rough polishing operation has to follow to achieve a mirror surface on the wafer surface. A fine polishing process follows the rough polishing one to get the final mirror surface. Lastly, cleaning process is done to flush out unwanted material from the surface of the wafer (Z.J. Pei a, 2001). The picture below provides a summary of the whole process.

steps involved to make a silicon ingot into a wafer

The high integration densities plus the requirement for miniaturization in consumer electronics has resulted in the discovery of chip stacking concept in three dimensions. Specialized packages for the three-dimensional chips have been developed by suppliers in the semiconductor industry. The concept of chip stacking is mostly applicable in memory devices or volume applications desiring high packing densities (Niklaus, 2002).

top and bottom die

silicon chip stacked for increased performance

Companies dealing with consumer products continue to make noticeable steps on to new technology as they constantly are engaged in research. A particular company is Motorola that admits that silicon substrate wafers do offer robustness, high speed, good optical capabilities plus being cheap. This will boost high-speed communication and reduce the cost of microprocessor systems inclusive of optoelectronics and the monolithic incorporation of electronics. Other consumer devices such as DVD players are among the products projected to improve with such important discoveries (Motorola, 2001). With these technologies, the company can make integrated semiconductor circuits or Opto devices on a given wafer.

Last year the Singapore-MIT alliance for research and technology made it public that they had successfully found out how to incorporate silicon III-V in their designs. The current challenge with 5G mobile devices is that their processors are silicon-based CMOS chips that do have low efficiency and generate excess heat. This makes the devices to overheat shutting down the device after a few minutes. Also, in the same year, On Semiconductors did make an agreement with Cree Inc where Cree is to produce silicon carbide wafers and supply it to On Semiconductors. The figure below shows a summary of how consumer electronic demand steadily rises each year.

chart of silicon electronic demand growth chart

How to Clean Silicon Wafers?

What is Soft Lithography

Gold Nanoparticles Film on Silicon Wafer by Self-Assembly

Global Silicon Wafer Market

What is Thermal Oxide Conductivity of Silicon Wafers

Silicon Wafer Defects Defined

Wafers for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis (SIMS)?

What is Sapphire?

Silicon Wafers Used for Raman Micro-Spectrometry

What are Some Silicon Carbide Uses?

What are Some Thin Film Materials?

Some of Silicon Carbide (SiC) Wafers Uses

What Silicon Wafers Used in FTIR Meaurements?

Differences Between Wet and Dry Thermal Oxide?

Photolithography Optimization Using Silicon Carbide Wafers

What is a Carrier Wafer?

Monocrystalline vs Polycrystalline Solar Panels

Where can I find Material Safety Data Sheet for the Silicon Wafers?

What is Anondic Bonding?

P-N Junction Explained

Why Use X-Cut Quartz Wafers?

What Wafers are Used in Silicon Photosensors Research

What is Raman Spectrometry?

What are some SiC Wafer Applications?

What is Etch Pit Density?

What is Silicon-on-Nothing?

What Graphene Used For?

What Is A Horizontal Vaccum Furnace?

What Wafer Should I Use?

What is a Si Wafer?

What Silicon Wafers are Used for Integrated Photovoltaics?

What is a PhD?

Why Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography is So Difficult?

What Will Be the Next Innovation in Semiconductors After the GAAFet?

What Are the Damping Coefficients of Gallium Antimonide?

What is Laser Lift-Off (LLO)?

Wafer Dicing Service

What are Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells?

What Is Raman Measurements?

What is Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)?

What is the Decomposition Temperature of Graphene?

What are Single Crystal Sapphire (Al2O3) Wafers?

What are Gallium Nitride Substrate Applications

What is Bulk Gallium Nitride (GaN)?

Is Indium Tin Oxide Considered a Conductor Or a Semiconductor?

How to Fabricate Lithium Batteries?

What is Single Crystal Silicon?

What is Bulk Silicon?

Silicon-on-Insulator Wafers for Photonics Research and Production

What Substrates are used to Fabricate SAW Sensors?

Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) Substrates for Thin-Film Interferometry

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate Nanochannels?

What Low RMS Substrates are used for Silicon Wafers for Template Stripping?

What is Conductive Glass?

Substrates Used To Fabricate Nanoimprint Devices

What is a Silicon Pocket Wafer?

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate Memristors?

What is the Benefits of Using Ellipsometry?

What type of Silicon N or P wafer should be used for Mass Spectrometry Testing?

Can You Make Polycrystalline Silicon Batteries?

What Substrate is Most Often Used in Nanotech Research?

What is Gilling on Silicon Wafers?

What Substrates are Used for Scanning Probe Microscopy?

What Single Crystal Substrate is The Most Widely Used in Semiconductors?

What Substrates are Used in Nanostructure Research?

What Substrates Are Used to Fabricate Semiconductor Lasers?

What Substrates are Used in Laser Diode Research and Fabrication?

What Substrates are Commonly Used in Physical Vapor Deposition?

How are Silicon Substrates Used With Raman Spectroscopy?

Why is Doping Concentration Important?

What Substrates are used to Fabricate Microwave Photonics?

What Silicon Substrates Used to Grow Nanowires for Plasmonic Applications?

What is Plasmonics?

What Substrates are Used Eutectic Die Attach Trials?

What Substrates are Used in Reactive Ion Etch Process Development?

What Substrates are Used for Spectrophotometry?

What ITO Wafer Spec is Used for MALDI Imaging?

Which element would you dope silicon to produce an n-type semiconductor?

The Number of Valence Electrons in Phosphorus

What is Spectroscopic Ellipsometry?

What Soda Lime Substrates to Fabricate Microelectrode Arrays for In Vitro Electrophysiology?

What Substrates Used for Customized Photolithography?

What Silcon Wafers are Used to Fabricate a Biobattery?

What is Lithography?

What Substrates are used for SU-8?

How Do Researchers Used Silicon Wafers For Ultrasonic Cleaning Processes?

What Substrates are used to Fabricate Microelectrode Arrays?

What is Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)?

How Scientists Use Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

What is an RF Engineer Salary?

What is HEMT?

What Silicon on Insulator (SOI) Substrates Should I Use to Fabricate a MOSFET Device?

What is Heterojunction (HJT)?

What is a Silicon Diode?

What Is Semiconductor Metrology?

What are Wafer Electronics?

What is a Semiconductor Wafer?

What Are Silizium Substrates?

What is Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs)?

What Other Substrates are Commonly Used to Fabricate Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs)?

What Are 300nm SiO2 Coated Silicon Wafers Used For?

What is the difference between fused silica JGS1 and JGS2 wafers?

Optical Windows to Protect Infrared Sensors

What Substrates Are Used in Photodetectors?

How to Fabricate a Piezoresistive Sensor

New Technique to Grow Thick Silicon Dioxide

Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) Coated Substrates to Fabricate Graphene Based Biosensors

Ten Substrates Used to Fabricate Field Effect Transistors (FET)

Cadmium Selenide to Research IR optical filter

What Lithium Niobate Wafers for Optical Waveguide Fabrication?

When Measuring the Resistivity of Gallium Arsenide Substrate, What Kind of Errors Could Happen Using a Four point probe?

What Substrates Can Be Used For Lithography Debugging?

Substrates Used for Soft Lithography to Fabricate Microfluidic Devices

Substrates Researchers Use to Fabricate Photonic Devices

How Silicon Discs are Used for X-Ray Applications?

What Carrier wafers are used for dry etching?

What is a Silicon Disc?

What Highly-Doped Silicon Wafers Specs are Used to Fabricate Organic Field Effect Transistors?

What is Space Based Solar Power?

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate Space-Based Radiation Detectors?

What Sapphire Substrates are used to Fabricate Superconducting Devices?

4H SiC Substrate for High Frequency Operations

What 6 Inch Sapphire are used to Grow Gallium Nitride Structures?

What is the difference between field-effect transistors (FETs) and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) in terms of input bias current?

What Wafers Can Be Used for Spin-on-Doping of Semiconductors?

What Are PMN-PT Crystal Substrates?

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate MEMS Platforms?

Chemical Mechanical Polishing for microLED optimization

What Epi Ready Substrates Should You Use?

What Subtrates are Used for Power Device Fabrication?

How Does the Chip Act Affect Silicon Wafer Production?

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate Optical Circuits?

What Substrates are used to Fabricate Optical Waveguides?

What ITO Substates are used for Electroadhesion?

What is Silicon's Band Gap?

What Substrates are Used in Fluoropolymer Thin Film Deposition?

What is Lattice Constant?

What Substrates Used for Electron Diffraction?

What Substrate Specs are Often Used as a Gate Dielectric?

What are some possible materials to replace CMOS after graphene and carbon nanotubes?

What is the MCL Value of Pure Silicon Wafer?

Indium Gallium Phosphide (InGaP) Substrates Used for Device Fabrication

What Substrates are Used in Quantum Material Research?

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate Photodetectors?

How to Measure a Substrate's Fermi Level?

What are the Advantages of Using Photonic Semiconductor Chips in Data Centres and Electric Vehicles (EV) Cars?

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate BioMEMS?

What is the Young's Modulus of Substrates?

SoQ to Research Metasurfaces

What Substrates are used for Metal Insulator Semiconductor (MIS) Structures?

What are Dummy Grade Silicon Wafers Used For?

Can Silicon Replace Mica or Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Tests?

What is 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide (SiC) Epitaxy?

Epi Ready Substrates for Research and Production

What is the Dielectric Constant of My Substrate?

Reclaimed Wafers For Great Savings

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate Dielectric Mirrors?

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate BioMEMS sensors?

Wafers used for plasma etching

How to grow magnetic thin film stacks for spintronic nanostructures on top

What Subtrates Are Used For Coplanar Waveguides?

Flame hydrolysis Deposition (FHD) of Silicon Oxide Wafer

What Substrates are Used to Fabricate Optical Devices?

Substrates Used to Fabricate Planar Waveguides Chips

What Substrates Are Often Used to Fabricate Waveguides?

What is the Doping Level of My Substrates?

What is the Best Silicon Wafer Spec for Growth of Thin 2D Materials?

2D Materials for Photoemission Measurements

Impact of Cleaning on Polyimide-Coated Silicon Surfaces

What Substrates Are Used for Anisotropic Etching?

Key Uses of Mock Aluminum (Al) Wafers

What Polished Silicon Wafer can be used for Microfluidic Microfabrication?

How Do You Determine if a Material is a Semiconductor?

How Do You Identify What Material a Substrate Is?

What is the Difference Between Conduction Band and Valence Band?

What ZnO Wafer Spec Should I use to Fabricate Thin Film Transistors (TFT)?

What are Silicon Nitride on Insulator Wafers (SiNOI) Applications?

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Wafers to Fabricate Optoelectronic and Photonic Devices

What Substrates are Used for Epitaxial Growth?

How Do You Determine The Defect Density Of A Substrate?

What are Broken Scrap and Dummy Silicon Wafers Used For?

What Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) Wafers Used for

Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) Measurements?

Undoped Ultra-Thin Gallium Arsenide Wafers

Periodically Poled Substrates

Substrates for Semiconductor Device Physics Research

II-VI Wafers Used for Bragg Mirror

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) Substrates

Bonding Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) to Borofloat 33 Glass

What a Process Integration Engineer Needs

Substrates Used to Fabricate Optical Filters

Substrates Used in Bandpass Filters?

Bulk CdSe Substrates to Calibrate Cameras

Thick Thermal OxideUsed as Sacrificial Layers in MEMS Applications

Is Germanium (Ge) Classified as Metal or a Metalloid?

What's a Nanolattice?

What Substrates are used for mm-Wave Research?

What Substrate sare Used in Beam Splitters?

Generative Artificial Intelligence for Semiconductors

Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells with High EQE Efficiency

What Substrates Used to Fabricate White Organic Light Emitting Diodes (WOLEDs)?

Substrates to Fabricate Quantum Wells

Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) Substrates for Research and Production