The following videos are a fun way to learn about silicon and semiconductors quickly!
Research Client Asks:
"I am looking at purchasing 100mm high resistivity silicon wafers. For my application, I need the wafers to have high carrier lifetimes (on the order of 100µs or greater), so I think they need to be float zone with high purity. The wafers can be undoped or have a slight n-type doping, along with <100> orientation. I will also be processing both sides of the wafer, so I will need double side polish. I am wondering if you have wafers that would suit my application?
I will be doing front side and back side DRIE with the wafers to micromachine waveguides. I need the high carrier lifetime as I will be exciting free carriers in the silicon using a laser."
The following wafers will work:
Si Item #3193 - 100mm Undoped <100> >10,000 ohm-cm 525um DSP Prime Grade TTV: <10um, Bow/Warp: <30um, Flat: 1
Below are just some of the books and videos to help you on your quest to learn about silicon.
Edited by S.S. Iyer and A.J. Auberton-Herve. https://books.google.com/books?id=n-xkaj7SWD0C&pg=PA359&lpg=PA359&dq=Silicon+Wafer+Bonding+Technology+for+VLSI+and+MEMS+applications.+Edited+by+S.S.+Iyer+and+A.J.+Auberton-Herve.&source=bl&ots=A3y4RubEoC&sig=ACfU3U1MOXHGJnJ_sy2j6ga97TpNoLRFCQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi0v8vuqYHpAhVFgnIEHX4SBmoQ6AEwBnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=Silicon%20Wafer%20Bonding%20Technology%20for%20VLSI%20and%20MEMS%20applications.%20Edited%20by%20S.S.%20Iyer%20and%20A.J.%20Auberton-Herve.&f=false
The effect of heating Silicon and allowing it to cool slowly to remove stresses and toughen the material is investigated. Thermal treatment increases the density and the native oxide thickness.
Technical information about the manufacturing of semiconductors. The process of wafer fabrication and the equipment used in order to fabricate a wafer are investigated.
The world of semiconductors and the studies associated with them are dynamic and exciting. As new developments are being made in the world of semiconductors the devices are becoming more complex.
This edition discusses the facets of quantum mechanical tunnelling with updated information. There are a large number of application problems with solved and unsolved exercises.
A thorough analysis of power semiconductor physics and how they are applied by the power electronics industry. Shows the operation for all power semiconductor devices.
A fully updated handbook on design processes and fabrication of MEMS, sensors, and other electronic devices. This is a full manual on the fundamentals of semiconductors.
In depth look at electrical properties and semiconductor characteristics. It brings together quantum mechanics and the theory of solids. A clarification of device physics.
Third updated edition to electronic, vibrational, transport and optical properties of semiconductors. An emphasis on understanding the physical properties of silicon.
A comprehensive look at the science and manufaturing of silicon materials. Completed with binary phase diagrams and practical applications like materials handling, safety and defect reduction.
A wide range of applications for semiconductor gas sensors in safety, process control and environmental monitoring. This is a full summary of emerging technologies in the semiconductor field.
Research Client Asks:
All bulk semiconductor crystals and wafers that are doped, have the dopant distributed in them as uniformly as possible. Considerable effort is made to measure both radial and axial uniformity of dopant distribution in a semiconductor ingot. CZ crystallized materials have large but predictable axial dopant variations and low Axial variation. FZ crystallized materials, gas phase doped, can have very low dopant variation throughout. Neutron Transmutation doping results in dopant variation dependent only on the uniformity of neutron Flux..
In making semiconductor devices on a bulk crystal substrate, doping is by diffusion (gas or liquid) through the wafer surface and therefore with inherent dopant gradient.
In Silicon wafers, I have not come across intentional co-doping with two or more elements.
In III-V semiconductors we have InP doped with both S and Zn. I have available GaAs:(Ga2O3+Cr), GaAs:(In+Sn), InP(Ga+Fe).
I have not ever come across Silicon doped with any III-V compounds, nor II-VI compounds.
I did come across GaAs:V2O5 and GaAs:Ga2O3.