Platinized Silicon Wafers for Research and Production

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Platinized Silicon Wafers

In order to make Platinized Silicon Wafers, a thin layer of silicon is first deposited on the substrate. This process can be difficult because the thickness of the silicon needs to be very uniform.

Problem: If the thickness of the silicon isn't uniform, then it can cause problems in later stages of the manufacturing process. This can lead to defective wafers that need to be scrapped.

Solution: Our team has developed a process that ensures that the thickness of the silicon is more uniform. We use an oxidation and carbonation step that helps to make sure that the Platinized Silicon Wafers are more consistent.

We can deposit by sputtering or evaporating Platinum group metels including Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru on Silicon wafers.

Get Your Pt Coated Si Wafer Quote FAST! Or, Buy Online and Start Researching Today!

Below is a common spec that we sell. Other diameters and specs and quantity available.

Please email us your specs and quantity.

2 inch 50~200nm Platinized Si wafers (100)

2 inch 50~200nm Platinized Si wafers (111)

Type - p type
Dopant - B doped
Resistivity - 1-20 ohm cm
Thickness - 0.5 mm
Polish SSP or DSP>

4" silicon wafers with a thin layer (~100-150 nm thin) of platinum on top

4” silicon wafers with coating:

TiO2 400A-450A + SiO2 5000A+/-200A+Pt 2000A

Substrate Surface Roughess Platinum Sputtering

A scientist requested the following quote:

Can you please let me know if you can do platinum sputtering and what the expected surface roughness and finish will be like?

The most important aspect for us is that we have a platinum layer as thick as about 10x the wavelength of visible light (say 5 micrometers) because we will be performing experiments with reflection. Also the roughness should be as low as possible and the surface should have a mirror-like finish.

So any specs on that would be much appreciated. The substrate is less important, preferably something that does not break easily and is easy to handle. Also we will not be subjecting it to any extreme temperature changes so we do not think we have any special requirements there. If the substrate and platinum top layer can be subjected to ultrasonic cleaner with a mild detergent that would be great. The specs of the underlying wafer itself are not very important.

We are looking to do some research on the optical and wetting properties of flat platinum surfaces. The size of the wafer ideally would be at least 100mm. We can start with 2 platinum-covered wafers.

Reference #225437 for specs and pricing.

Coating Polyimide Foils with Platinum (Pt)

A corporate researcher requested the following quote:


Can you coat 100nm Pt + 100nm Ti on top to Polyimidefoils (with a lift off resist)? What is maximum wafer size? Batch size? 

Answer: Yes!

Item   Qty.   Description
GO95. 24   Polyimide foil (Kapton), P/P 100×150mm × 100µm,
                    with 100nm of Ti (Titanium) on front-side,
                    with 100nm of Pt(Platinum) over Ti on front-side,
                    Suitably packed for air-transport

Reference #253222  for specs and pricing.

Platinum Coated Silicon for AFM Adhesive Force Testing

A PhD Candidate requested the folllowing quote:

I am looking for the platinum coated and gold coated Si wafer for AFM adhesive force testing. I am wondering if you have any of them?

The specs are below:

Pt coated Si wafer:
diameter: 4"
thickness: 500um - 550um
coating thickness: 100nm

Au coated Si wafer:
diameter: 4"
thickness: 500um - 550um
coating thickness: 100nm

No other specs. just want to make sure the coating surface is high purity and uniform because the AFM tip end is so small.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

We have the following:
Si Wafer
4", 500um, SSP, P<100>, 1-40 ohm-cm
Quantity: 10 Pieces
FOB Price:
Cr+100nm Pt:
Cr+100nm Au:

Reference #267887 for pricing.

Platinum Thin Films to Fabricate Electron Transparent TEM Samples

A doctoral student requested a quote for the following:

My research group is looking to buy silicon wafers with a silicon nitride layer to deposit palladium and platinum thin films (<50nm). We need to anneal these films at up to 1000°C and then perform a KOH etch to make electron transparent TEM samples. What type of nitride layer wafer would be appropriate for this application?

We usually use 3” wafers, and would need something like 50 of them. Historically, we have used 450um thick thermally oxidized wafers, but thickness is not a critical factor since we mechanically pre-thin the samples before back-etching anyway. The properties of the bulk silicon are unimportant to us, other than having an appropriate orientation for KOH back-etching. The only other relevant factor is that we need to have as smooth a substrate surface as possible.

We would like to move to using nitride wafers in order to deposit Palladium, as noble metals sometimes have poor adhesion to oxide layers upon annealing due to their low affinity for oxygen groups. I have seen some suggestion that nitrides work better. On the site, there are a few options, and I am not sure which type of nitride layer is most appropriate for our application, which requires annealing at up to 1000°C followed by the preparation of electron transparent windows through chemical back etching  for plan-view TEM work. 

Would you have any advice, or be able to put me in contact with someone who can help advise, on what variety of nitride layer is best suited for this application?

We are a very small lab, and so we would not be likely to order a whole lot more than 50 wafers at a time. For the first order, we may want to go with a very small quantity to verify that our planned process works before committing to several dozen wafers.

Reference #269750 for specs and pricing.

What are 5 Platinized Silicon Wafers Applications?

Here are five applications of platinized silicon wafers:

  • Electrochemical Sensors: Platinized silicon wafers are used to fabricate electrochemical sensors due to platinum's excellent catalytic activity and conductivity. These sensors are widely used in monitoring various chemical species, such as dissolved oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and glucose, in environmental, medical, and industrial applications.
  • Photovoltaic Cells: The platinum layer on silicon wafers can improve solar cells' light absorption and charge separation. Platinized silicon wafers are employed to fabricate advanced photovoltaic devices, which offer higher efficiency and better stability than traditional solar cells.
  • Fuel Cells: Platinized silicon wafers are used as electrode materials in fuel cells, particularly in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The platinum layer catalyzes to promote the electrochemical reactions between hydrogen and oxygen, generating electricity.
  • Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS): Platinized silicon wafers are employed to fabricate MEMS devices due to their high conductivity, robustness, and compatibility with silicon-based microfabrication processes. Examples of MEMS applications include accelerometers, gyroscopes, pressure sensors, and microfluidic devices.
  • Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS): Platinized silicon wafers can be used as SERS substrates to amplify the Raman signals of molecules adsorbed on their surfaces. This technique enables the detecting and identifying trace amounts of chemicals in various fields, such as environmental monitoring, forensic analysis, and biomedical diagnostics.

How Do You Fabricate Platinized Silicon Wafers?

The process of making Platinized Silicon Wafers is relatively simple. The process involves coating the substrate with a thin layer of silicon, followed by oxidation and carbonation. The oxidation and carbonation step is the most important step in the manufacturing process. This step will make the Platinized Silicon Wafers more uniform. The next phase of this process is the annealing stage. This step can be performed in a cleanroom.

The thickness of the silicon wafer is determined by the mechanical strength of the material. The thickness of the wafer needs to be able to bear its own weight without cracking. The most common orientations of the material are listed below. There are also some significant differences between the three types of silicon wafers. Here are the major differences between each of the three: a. Crystallized silicon has a diamond cubic structure.

The orientation of the silicon wafers has an impact on their semiconductor properties. The crystalline silicon orientation is defined by the Miller index. The optimum orientation for each type depends on the application. The most common kinds of the crystal are diamond, amorphous, and cubic. The ion implantation depth is determined by the crystal and wafer orientation. The ion implantation depth depends on the crystal and the wafer's orientation.

The thickness of a silicon wafer depends on its mechanical strength. It should be thick enough to support its own weight without cracking. When metallizing the silicon, it must be heated to high temperatures. However, metallized silicon can be a bit more resistant to this condition. It can be made into thin, multi-layer chips. Then, it can be used in devices such as microelectronics.

In this process, platinum-coated silicon wafers are crystals formed from highly polycrystalline thin films of platinum deposited onto silicon wafers. The platinum layer thickness can vary from 100 to 200 nm. American Elements is a manufacturer of unpolished and polished silicon wafers. The production of these materials involves several steps, including sublimation and crystallization. In addition to the two types of silicon, the Platinized and diamond-coated wafers can be used in both electrochemical and optical applications.

When making semiconductor chips, it is essential to choose the proper orientation for the Platinized Silicon Wafers. This way, the chips produced will be more efficient and have higher quality. In addition, the wafers can be manufactured in a variety of ways. You can also use them for different applications. You can find them in varying sizes and thicknesses, and even custom-designed silicon is available. When choosing the right type of silicon, it is important to understand the differences between the three different types.

The surface of the silicon is also crucial. It is oriented in one or more directions. The orientation of the silicon will determine how the chip will be oriented. An orientable silicon wafer has a better crystalline density than a non-oriented one. In addition, a Platinized silicon wafer has a crystalline density that is greater than a flat one, but is less durable.

Silicon is available in a variety of orientations. Depending on the particular application, the optimum orientation may be different from another. Generally, the ion implantation of the silicon wafer is dependent on the crystal's orientation. Its diamond cubic structure is a very good choice for semiconductors. There are three types of Platinized Silicon Wafers: A standard and a customized version.

The primary use of a silicon wafer is in the manufacture of integrated circuits, which power many of the devices in our society, such as smartphones and computers. Because silicon is one of the most stable semiconductors, it is a natural choice for these devices. Because of its high stability, Platinized silicone is an excellent material for these products. Its transparent surface makes it suitable for many uses and is very compatible with a variety of electronic components.

How Exactly are Platinized Silicon Wafers Used to Fabricate GaS Sensors?

The Platinized Silicon Wafers are ideal for high-performance electronic devices, because of their high resistance to heat. The material is highly flexible, which makes it an ideal material for high-performance computer applications. For example, an integrated circuit may have a number of components. A single silicon wafer is the best material for these devices. It is also an excellent material for making electronic components that can withstand extreme temperatures.

Platinized silicon wafers are used to fabricate gas sensors due to their excellent catalytic properties, high conductivity, and compatibility with silicon-based microfabrication processes. Here is an outline of the process of using platinized silicon wafers to fabricate gas sensors:

  1. Preparation of the substrate: The starting material is a silicon wafer, which can be single-crystalline or polycrystalline, depending on the desired sensor properties and application. The silicon wafer is cleaned and prepared for the deposition of the platinum layer.

  2. Platinum deposition: A thin layer of platinum is deposited onto the silicon wafer using techniques such as physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), or electroplating. The thickness and morphology of the platinum layer can be controlled to optimize the sensor performance.

  3. Patterning: Photolithography or other patterning techniques are used to define the desired sensor structure on the platinized silicon wafer. This involves applying a photosensitive resist layer, exposing it to a patterned mask, developing the resist, and then etching away the unwanted platinum and silicon regions.

  4. Sensor element fabrication: Depending on the type of gas sensor, additional materials or structures may need to be integrated with the platinized silicon wafer. For example, in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors, a layer of a gas-sensitive metal oxide, such as SnO2 or ZnO, is deposited onto the platinum layer. In other types of gas sensors, such as electrochemical or resistive sensors, additional electrodes or sensing layers may need to be fabricated.

  5. Packaging and integration: The sensor elements are separated from the wafer using techniques like dicing or laser cutting. The individual sensors are then packaged and integrated into a suitable housing, which includes electrical connections, gas-permeable membranes, or other necessary components.

  6. Calibration and testing: The fabricated gas sensors are calibrated and tested for their sensitivity, selectivity, and response time to the target gases. This may involve exposing the sensors to controlled gas mixtures and measuring their electrical, optical, or other response signals.

Once the fabrication process is complete, the platinized silicon wafer-based gas sensors can be used in various applications, such as environmental monitoring, industrial process control, and safety systems.

What are Platinized Silicon Wafers?

Today's commercial silicon wafers are capable of freeing silicon blocks with wires and saws - a process that is wasteful due to the high cost of producing each wafer, but Hyperion's new process solves this. " Technologies says its process reduces four separate production steps in a single, cost-effective, continuous process and significantly reduces silicon waste by forming individual waves directly from a molten silicon bath. The flaking process can be divided into two parts, each of which forms a crack on the edge of a pad and carries out a series of steps to check the integrity of each piece and the quality of its surface. [Sources: 0, 1]

In addition, the edge inclination of the silicon wafer with column structure is measured and the edges and steep slopes of each one are measured. In addition, a number of other parameters, such as the surface area, thickness and thickness of a silicon block, are measured quantities. [Sources: 0]

The results are shown in Figure 12, and the R and S readings are 1.5% and 2.3% of the total silicon wafer thickness, respectively. In addition, the surface of solar cells with bulk silicone wafers with column structure and flaking silicon wafers will be measured and a comparison of the properties of these devices will be shown. The measured values of e and e are 1: 45 and 1: 35, respectively; however, they are close to 1, which is closer to -1 if compared with the solar cell used in the bulk silicon wafer slit cell (Figure 11). The WAFERS brittle silicone solar cell is much more efficient than the standard cell used in conventional solar modules (Fig. 12). [Sources: 0]

The silicon wafers with column structure in Figure 6 have an even thickness of about 50 mm, but the deviation between silicon and wafer thickness remains below 2 mm (4). This means that the thickness of the flaking silicon layers is proportional to the nickel layer. With increasing thickness of the nickel layers, the tension caused by the nickel layer decreases, as the load is transferred from the nickel layer to silicon wafers. In addition, with increasing nickel thickness, the induced stress on the silicon wafer decreases, resulting in an increased thickness of the spalled silicon wafer (3). Stress, in contrast, decreases - induced nickel layers decrease as their thickness increases, and voltage transfer from nickel to silicon wafers. [Sources: 0]

Compared to the spectrum of pure silicon wafers, the concentrated silicon wafers show no obvious shift in the PL spectrum, indicating that the band structure in the spalled silicon wafer remains unchanged in relation to the PL (5). [Sources: 0]

This means that the thin silicon solar cells produced by laser treatment of silicon wafers with a high intensity laser (5) do not form cracks or defects in the strip structure. This confirms that the laser-treated silicon wafers are as thin as their pure counterparts after pretreatment. Consequently, it is confirmed that initial cracks caused by laser procedures lead to the formation of a thin strip - a structure without significant ligament defects (6). Although the silicon wafer has sufficient fracture stress, the fractures caused by laser treatment did not spread to other parts of the substrate. [Sources: 0]

After all, the solar cells produced from silicon wafers behaved in exactly the same way as their pure counterparts. Sak and J. HL produced solar cells from the silicon films of Wafers and measured their efficiency. [Sources: 0]

SIMS, which measures the efficiency of silicon wafers in terms of both the number of solar cells per square metre and the amount of silicon in each cell. [Sources: 0]

The thickness of the crevice-forming silicon wafer can be predicted if the initial cracks can calculate the stress caused by the electrodecentralizing layer. The results show that it is inversely proportional to stress, i.e. the induced load on the silicone wafer increases with decreasing internal load from the nickel layer and vice versa. In other words, if induced stresses on a silicon wafer are caused by external stresses (e.g. external pressure of a nickel stress layer), the thickness in the spalled silicon wafers is higher when internal stresses from nickel - the stressors in this layer are low - occur. If the stresses of nickel layers can be controlled as a function of the layer thickness, then we would expect to be able to predict the exact stress quantity - which induces nickel in each layer and its relative thickness. [Sources: 0]

In order to predict the thickness of the split silicon wafers, the new equation can be obtained using an electrodecentralized nickel layer. [Sources: 0]

Figure 10b shows the stress caused by the residual stress on the nickel layer and the thickness of the split silicon wafers. Figure 10a shows an electrodecentralized silicon layer with the same thickness as shown in Figure 10. [Sources: 0]

Figure 5a shows the flaking silicon wafers depending on the nickel thickness and the thickness of the electrodecentralized silicon layer of the same thickness. [Sources: 0]




Is Platinum a Better Conductor Than Gold?

When comparing the electrical properties of silver, copper, and gold, platinum comes out on top. The reason for this is that both metals have high electrical conductivity and are more ductile. Silver and gold are the most highly conductive metals, but silver and copper have lower atomic radii than gold and platinum. This means that they conduct electricity more efficiently than platinum and have a larger radius, which is advantageous for electricity.

When it comes to the electrical properties of gold and silver, platinum is the best. The metal has the lowest reactivity, which makes it a good conductor. It also resists corrosion well and has stable electrical properties at high temperatures. However, the greatest difference between the two is the atomic radius and Young's modulus. Airgel has the lowest thermal conductivity in the world and is the best conductor of heat.

In terms of reactivity, platinum is the least reactive metal. Copper, silver, and gold are all highly conductive. Artifacts made of these metals from thousands of years ago have little or no tarnish, while those made of silver or copper will need polishing. Furthermore, while gold and silver are considered the best conductors of heat and electricity, they have different electrical characteristics and should be treated with caution.

While gold has the highest electrical conductivity, it is less malleable. It has better corrosion resistance and is stable at high temperatures, whereas platinum is less malleable. The other main difference between gold and platinum is that it is more expensive. But you should never choose a metal based solely on price. And platinum is a better option for jewelry. It is much cheaper than gold and silver, and it is also easier to find.

As a matter of fact, it is more conductive than gold. As a result, it is more malleable than gold, copper, and silver. But when it comes to copper, the former is more conductive than the latter. When it comes to electricity, platinum is also easier to scratch. The higher it is, the higher its conductivity. Its ductility and corrosion resistance makes platinum a better metal for many applications.

Silver is a better conductor of electricity than gold, but it is not as conductive as copper. While silver has a higher electrical permeability than gold, the latter is less conductive than copper. Its conductive properties are also lower in aluminum, which means that they are less valuable in jewelry. In addition, they tend to be less malleable than aluminum. Its conductive properties make it a great choice for electrical wiring in appliances.

Although both metals are conductive, platinum is less malleable than gold. In contrast, gold has a higher electrical conductivity than platinum, but is more malleable than silver. It is also easier to store, which is an advantage when it comes to jewelry. In addition to its superior thermal and electrical conductivity, it has also been shown to be more conductive than gold. These properties make platinum a better choice for electrical use

Compared to gold, platinum is more ductile than the former. It has a lower atomic radius than gold, which means it can be more malleable. In contrast, gold is a much better conductor than platinum when it comes to electrical current. A metal that is more conductive than its counterpart is preferred for applications such as jewelry. There are two main types of jewelry: pure silver and plated.

The best-performing metal for electrical use is silver. This metal is the most conductive metal in the world. It is the third-best conductor of electricity. It is the most valuable metal in jewelry and other electrical components. It is also used to coat other conductive materials. The insulating properties of gold make it a great choice for electronics. The most expensive, high-quality jewelry is often made from platinum.