**(111) Oriented Silicon Wafers for Rastertunnel Mikroskop (RTM)**

A Phd student requested the following (111) silicon quote:

We are working on a project to built or produce
**Rastertunnel Mikroskop (RTM)**. The mechanical and
software part of this project is almost finished,
and after everything is completely done, we are going to calibrate this RTM using silizium @
silicon (111).i am the person who r responsible to
this calibrating part of this RTM. i just want to
ask if i can get cheaper** Siliziumscheibe (silicon disc)** (111)
from your company. The size of the Silizium is not
really matter as long as we can get it for a
lowest price. i am looking foward to hear from you
as soon as posible

Reference #121515 for specs and pricing.

**Silicon Wafers Quote ***FAST!* Or, **Buy Online** and Start Research Today!

**How Can You Tell if a Silicon Wafer's Orientation is (111)?**

The easiest way is to take a hammer and nail to the wafer! Put the nail on the wafer's center. Hit the nail with the hammer. If the wafer breaks into four pieces, the the crystal orienation is (100). If the wafer shatters, then it's (111).

(111) orientation Silicon Wafer is a more complicated type of wafer than the 100-oriented one. It can be a bit more expensive than the 100-oriented wafers, but the etching speed is faster.

Most people don't even know that there are different orientations for silicon wafers! And even fewer people know that the (111) orientation has better etching speed and is easier to cut than the (110) oriented silicon.

If you're looking for a high quality silicon wafer with superior etching speed, then you should definitely consider purchasing a (111) oriented silicon wafer from UniversityWafer, Inc.

###

**What are (111) Orientation Silicon Wafer?**

Silicon wafers are typically classified based on their crystal orientation, which refers to the specific arrangement of the atoms within the crystal lattice of the silicon. One common orientation is (111), which is characterized by a particular arrangement of atoms in the crystal lattice that results in a hexagonal pattern on the surface of the wafer. This orientation is often used in the production of microelectronic devices because it has several advantageous properties, including a lower surface roughness and a higher electron mobility compared to other orientations. In addition, (111) oriented silicon wafers are often used for applications that require high-quality epitaxial growth, such as the production of high-performance transistors.

The (111) orientation is identified by a three-digit **Miller index**, which is a notation system used to describe the planes and directions within a crystal lattice. The first digit represents the plane, the second digit represents the direction perpendicular to the plane, and the third digit represents the direction perpendicular to both the plane and the direction. In the case of (111) oriented silicon wafers, the three digits represent the (111) plane, which is a set of parallel planes that intersect at 60-degree angles.

The (111) orientation Silicon Wafer is a more complicated type of substrate than the 100-oriented one. It can be a bit more expensive than the 100-oriented wafers, but the etching speed is faster. This is because the silicon atoms are positioned at an angle of 90 degrees to the primary flat. It is also easier to cut than the 110-oriented wafer, but it is more difficult to fabricate complicated structures on a 111 wafers.

**(111) Silicon Wafer Applications**

For temperature-sensitive components, a 111-orientation silicon wafer is a good choice as its triangular crystal structure can be less prone to high temperatures. This makes (111) silicon devices that work at higher-temps. (111) orientation silicon wafer has a low refractory index, which can improve the reliability of your components. So, if you need a wafer with high refractoriness, a 111-orientation one is a great choice.

**How Do you Cleave (111) Silicon Wafers?**

(111) silicon wafers requires a different method to cleave than (100) orienation.

The 111-orientation wafer is a better choice for high-end electronics and works great in cellular phones.

A 111-orientation silicon wafer is a good choice for temperature-sensitive components. A 111-orientation silicon wafer has a softer surface and can be more easily etched.

The 111-orientation silicon wafer has a significant impact on optical, thermal, and electrical properties. During the fabrication process, it is important to have the correct 111 orientation to avoid any mismatches.

The diffraction method is a reliable way of verifying the 111-orientation silicon wafer. It is a proven method for determining crystal orientation. It is an important factor in semiconductor manufacturing. A diffraction pattern is a picture of the crystal's orientation. The X-ray pattern is the best way to make sure a crystalline wafer is correctly oriented. Moreover, the diffraction pattern is highly accurate, allowing for a 0.5 degree accuracy.

**Cleaving (111) Silicon Wafers Instruction**

Video: How to Cleave (111) Silicon Wafers

**Why Are 100 Wafers Preferred Over 111 For MOS Devices?**

The main difference between (100) and (111) oriented silicon wafers is the orientation of the crystals. Typically, the (100) oriented silicon is easier to cleve, and the more orientated the silicon, the better. However, there are also other factors to consider, such as manufacturing cost and complexity. Nevertheless, the 100-oriented silicon wafers are more commonly used for MOS devices.

The higher-order (111) surface provides an 80% increase in hole mobility, but the process is much more complicated. The underlying (100) surface is oriented in a way that prevents holes from moving. This is a major drawback, but this is an acceptable tradeoff for deep-submicron CMOS technology. In addition, a (111) surface is much more flexible.

While the (111) surface is easier to cleve, the mobility of the holes is about 80% higher. This makes it easier to create deep-submicron MOS devices. But there are still a few drawbacks to using the (111) surface for MOS devices. The first drawback of using higher-order surface is the lower hole mobility. But this is not a deal-breaker. Both facets have the same hole mobility.

The 111 surface is preferred for CMOS devices because the surface mobility of holes is 80% higher. This higher mobility means that higher-order surfaces are better for deep-submicron CMOS technology. Furthermore, these higher-order surfaces can be fabricated easier and have a much higher density. The (111) surface is not widely used in CMOS technology. It is a problem because they require a lot more time and money to manufacture.

Both 100 and 111 wafers have advantages and disadvantages. Generally, the 111 surface is preferable for CMOS devices and microsystems. But it is still the only one that can be used for deep submicron technology. The (111) surface is more expensive and is not ideal for MOS technology. The (111) surface is superior for CMOS technology because it is more dense.

While (111) surfaces are better for deep-submicron CMOS technology, the (100) surface is better for deeper-submicron CMOS devices. The 111 surface is not compatible with deep-submicron CMOS, and the 100 surface is more expensive. In addition, the 111 is preferable for a wide-area CMOS device.

The surface is better for deep-submicron CMOS technology. The higher-order surface is preferred for deep-submicron CMOS devices because it allows for better atomic-level design. The 100-wafer is better for deep-submicron ICs. In general, the 111-wafer is cheaper. It has more space on both sides.

The difference in orientation between (111) and (100) wafers is a result of the crystalline structure. Higher-order surfaces have lower mobility of silicon atoms. The 111-wafer has lower surface mobility. As a result, it is more difficult to manufacture deep-submicron MOS devices. In contrast, the 100-wafer has higher hole mobility.

In MOS devices, the 100-wafers are more efficient. The 111-wafers have lower energy. The higher-order surface is better for deep-submicron CMOS technologies. The 111-wafers are better for micron-sized CMOS, but aren't they too expensive? The difference between the two is based on the dimensional requirements of the device.

A 100-wafer is a thin circular slice of a single-crystalline semiconductor. The thickness of a wafer depends on its diameter. A hundred-wafer has a thickness of 25mm, while the 111-wafer is 300mm. The difference in the two-dimensional structure of a hundred-wafer is about a half-millionth of a millimeter.

Besides being more expensive, the larger the wafer, the higher the quality. The smaller the wafer, the higher the quality. A hundred-wafer is better for production in many ways, including reliability. A hundred-wafer has more advantages than a 111-wafer does. Firstly, it can be processed faster. Secondly, it allows more die to fit on a smaller area.

**(111) Oriented Silicon Wafers in Stock**

Please see below for just a short list of the (111) Silicon Substrates that we have in stock and ready to ship. If you don't see what you need then please email us your specs.

**Dia (mm)** |
**Type/Dopant** |
**Type/Dopant** |
**Thck (μm)** |
**Polish** |
**Resistivity Ωcm** |
**Specs** |

6" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
300 ±15 |
P/P |
FZ >6,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat (57.5mm), Lifetime>1,000μs, Empak cst |

6" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
300 ±15 |
P/P |
FZ >6,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat (57.5mm), Lifetime>1,000μs, Empak cst |

6" |
Intrinsic Si:- |
[111] ±0.5° |
750 |
E/E |
FZ >10,000 |
SEMI notch, TEST (defects, cannot be polished out), Empak cst |

6" |
P/B |
[111-4.0°] ±0.5° |
625 |
P/E |
4-15 {7.1-8.8} |
SEMI Prime, 1 JEIDA Flat(47.5mm), Empak cst |

6" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
675 |
P/E |
1-100 |
SEMI Prime, NO Flats, Empak cst |

6" |
Intrinsic Si:- |
[111] ±0.5° |
675 |
C/C |
FZ >10,000 |
SEMI notch, Empak cst |

5" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.1° |
200 ±15 |
BROKEN |
FZ >3,000 |
Broken L/L wafers, in 2 pieces |

5" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] |
300 ±15 |
P/E |
FZ 1,000-3,000 |
SEMI Prime, in hard cassettes of 8 wafers |

5" |
n-type Si:Sb |
[111-3.0°] ±0.5° |
625 |
P/E |
0.015-0.020 {0.0152-0.0185} |
SEMI Prime, 2Flats, Empak cst |

4" |
P/B |
[111] ±0.5° |
400 ±15 |
P/E |
FZ >20,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst, TTV<5μm, Lifetime>1,000μs |

4" |
P/B |
[111] ±0.5° |
397 |
P/E |
FZ 10,000-15,000 |
SEMI Prime, Backside ACID Etched, Empak cst |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.25° |
675 |
P/E |
FZ 10,000-20,000 |
SEMI TEST (Light scratches), 1Flat, Lifetime>1,000μs, Empak cst, |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
500 |
P/E |
FZ 10,000-15,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst, TTV<5μm |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
675 |
P/E |
FZ >7,000 |
SEMI, 1Flat, in Empak, Lifetime>1,600μs |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
675 |
P/E |
FZ >7,000 |
SEMI TEST (Scratches, in Unsealed Empak cassette), 1Flat, Lifetime>1,600μs |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
675 |
P/E |
FZ >7,000 |
SEMI, 1Flat, Lifetime>1,600μs, in Empak cassettes of 6 and 8 wafers |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
630 |
P/G |
FZ >7,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, in Empak, Lifetime>1,000μs, Back-side Fine Ground |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.25° |
675 |
P/E |
FZ 7,000-10,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, in Empak, Lifetime>1,000μs, Light scratches |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
150 ±10 |
BROKEN |
FZ 5,000-10,000 |
Broken P/E wafers, in Empak |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.25° |
675 |
P/E |
FZ 5,000-7,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, in Empak, Lifetime>1,000μs |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.25° |
675 |
P/E |
FZ 5,000-7,000 |
SEMI TEST (light scratches), 1Flat, Lifetime>1,000μs, in Empak |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/E |
FZ >5,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Lifetime>1,000μs, Empak cst |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111-1° towards[110]] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/E |
FZ >5,000 |
SEMI TEST (scratches on back-side), 1Flat, Empak cst |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.25° |
525 |
P/E |
FZ 3,000-5,000 |
SEMI TEST (light scratches), 1Flat, Empak cst |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.25° |
525 |
P/E |
FZ 3,000-5,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, in Empak cassettes of 3, 3 & 4 wafers |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/P |
FZ >3,000 |
SEMI Prime, 2Flats, Lifetime>1,000μs, Empak cst |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/P |
FZ >3,000 |
SEMI Prime, 2Flats, Lifetime>1,000μs, in Empak cassettes of 5, & 10 wafers |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/P |
FZ >3,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat (32.5mm) |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
285 ±10 |
P/P |
FZ 2,500-2,700 |
SEMI Prime, 2Flats, Empak cst |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
290 ±10 |
P/P |
FZ 2,500-3,500 |
SEMI TEST (Surface defects), 2Flats, Empak cst |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±1° |
380 |
P/E |
FZ 2,000-3,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, TTV<5μm, Lifetime>1,000μs, in Epak cassettes of 6 wafers |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/E |
FZ 1,500-3,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, in Empak, Lifetime>1,100μs |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/E |
FZ 430-550 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst, TTV<7μm |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/E |
FZ 430-550 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst, TTV<7μm |

4" |
n-type Si:P |
[111] ±0.5° |
500 ±13 |
E/E |
FZ 6.03-7.37 |
SEMI, 2Flats |

4" |
Intrinsic Si:- |
[111] ±0.5° |
500 |
P/P |
FZ >25,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst |

4" |
Intrinsic Si:- |
[111] ±0.5° |
300 |
P/E |
FZ 20,000-40,000 |
SEMI, 1Flat, TTV<5μm, Empak cst |

4" |
Intrinsic Si:- |
[111] ±0.5° |
500 |
P/E |
FZ >20,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst, Extra 3 free non-prime wafers included with 4 prime wafers |

4" |
Intrinsic Si:- |
[111] ±0.5° |
450 |
P/P |
FZ >20,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst |

4" |
Intrinsic Si:- |
[111] ±0.5° |
500 |
P/P |
FZ >10,000 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst |

4" |
P/B |
[111] |
350 |
P/E |
2-3 |
Prime, NO Flats, Empak cst |

4" |
P/B |
[111] ±0.5° |
1,000 |
P/E |
1-10 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, in hard cassettes of 7 & 8 wafers |

4" |
P/B |
[111] |
1,000 |
P/P |
1-10 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst, Cassettes of 10 and 10 wafers |

4" |
P/B |
[111] |
1,000 |
P/P |
1-10 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst |

4" |
P/B |
[111] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/P |
0.2-1.0 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, in Empak cassettes of 6, 7 & 7 wafers |

4" |
P/B |
[111-4°] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/E |
0.01-0.02 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst |

4" |
P/B |
[111-4°] ±0.5° |
525 ±15 |
P/EOx |
0.005-0.015 {0.0086-0.0135} |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst, TTV<5μm, 5,000A LTO on back-side |

4" |
P/B |
[111-3°] ±0.5° |
525 |
P/E |
0.002-0.016 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, in Empak cassettes of 4, 5 & 5 wafers |

4" |
P/B |
[111-3°] |
525 |
P/E |
0.002-0.004 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst |

4" |
ShowShoppingCartTally(); P/B |
[111] ±0.5° |
1,000 |
P/E |
<0.01 |
SEMI Prime, 1Flat, Empak cst |