Silicon Wafer for Microfluidics Chip Research

university wafer substrates

Silicon Wafer for Microfluidic Chips

Typical university Phd request:

I am interested in ordering some (25) 100-mm wafers for microfluidic device fabrication. We have ordered from you previously and the specifications I found are as follows: Crystal: mechanical grade; Polish: SSP; Thick: 500-650 um; ID:1196

Reference #205218 for specs and pricing.

We can help you with your microfluidic chips. Any questions regarding photolithography, sputtering, deep reactive ion etching on silicon wafers. We can also help with metal depostion.

Some of our wafers have a Total Thickness Variation (TTV) 1 micron to help with your Micromechanical (MEMS) research.

Get Your Quote FAST!

Silicon Wafers to Fabricate Microfluidic Chips

A researcher from a large university asked for a quote on the following:

I would like to get quote for the silicon wafer to fabricate microfluidic chip. Can you give a suggestion and quote for that? 

The following wafer will work for the microfludic application above.

Si Item #783

100mm P/B <100> 1-10 ohm-cm 500um SSP Prime Grade

Microfluidic Chips have channels etched into the silicon wafers on the micrometer scale. The channel is used to control
the flow of fluids using MEMS pumps.


What Glass Substrate are used to Fabricate Microfluidic Chips?

We would like to order some glass wafers as our microfluidic chip substrate. We will pattern some micro-scale golden wires with on the
substrate surface, which will be sealed by PDMS topping. The thickness similar to the normal microscope glass slide should be good enough.

what does a microfluidic device look like

Do you have any recommendation of 4-inch or 5-inch glass wafer (with price)?

Answer: We recomend Soda Lime Substrates.

Reference #211760 for specs and pricing.

What Sapphire Windows Used To Fabricate Microfluidic Devices?

A chemical engineer requested the following quote:

I am building a microfluidic device in which I would like to use sapphire as the window material, therefore mechanical grade would be sufficient. 

I am interested in relatively thick wafers because I'd like the windows of the device to be strong.

Could you let me know what you have in stock that would serve my needs?

Reference #224700  for specs and pricing.

What Are Microfluidic Devices?

Microfluidics is a broad term that refers to the precise control and manipulation of fluids on a very small how does a microfluidic device flowscale. It involves the study of fluids with a physics-based design, and it is a multidisciplinary field with applications in engineering, nanotechnology, biotechnology, and chemistry. Below are some examples of microfluidic devices. Each one is a unique example of a microfluidic device, and their advantages are discussed.

Microfluidic devices are very similar to circuit boards in design, but instead of using electricity, they use liquid to perform experiments. They are typically made of a plastic chip, which has tiny channels running through it in specific patterns. In this way, they can perform many different laboratory analyses in the same chip. This technology has become a hot topic for biological research, where it enables researchers to perform accurate experiments and analysis of biological samples.

Microfluidic devices are available in a variety of materials, including silicon, glass, and fluoropolymers. The cost of a microfluidic device depends on the type of material it is made of and the size of the feature. For features larger than 10 um, a silicon or glass photomask can cost between $100 and $500. Film photomasks are another option for a larger feature size.

The development of microfluidics has opened up an exciting new field of research. Unlike the traditional bench assays, these devices can manipulate and analyze minute volumes of fluids. This new method can be used to detect explosives in public areas, contaminants in drinking water, or poor growing conditions in soil. With the technology in hand, microfluidics could become a reality in health research. With so many applications, these devices are expected to revolutionize the way scientists conduct research in the future.

What is the Difference Between MEMS, Microfabrication and Microfluidics?

MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems), microfabrication, and microfluidics are all related fields that deal with miniaturization and integration of devices and systems at a microscale level. However, they have distinct differences in terms of their focus and applications.

MEMS refers to the design, fabrication, and integration of miniaturized mechanical and electromechanical devices and systems that typically have dimensions ranging from micrometers to millimeters. MEMS devices can be made using various microfabrication techniques, and they typically contain microsensors, microactuators, and microelectronics. Examples of MEMS devices include accelerometers, gyroscopes, pressure sensors, and inkjet print heads.

Microfabrication is the process of creating tiny structures and devices using a combination of lithography, etching, and deposition techniques. It is a fundamental technology used in MEMS and microfluidics. Microfabrication enables the creation of miniaturized devices with precise control over their size, shape, and material properties. It is also used in the fabrication of microelectronic devices, such as integrated circuits and microprocessors.

Microfluidics, on the other hand, deals with the behavior, control, and manipulation of fluids at a microscale level. Microfluidic devices are typically made using microfabrication techniques and can perform tasks such as sample preparation, chemical analysis, and medical diagnostics. Examples of microfluidic devices include lab-on-a-chip systems, microreactors, and microfluidic pumps.

In summary, MEMS focuses on the design and fabrication of miniaturized mechanical and electromechanical devices and systems, microfabrication is the process of creating tiny structures and devices, and microfluidics deals with the behavior and control of fluids at a microscale level. While there is overlap between these fields, each has its own unique applications and areas of focus.

What is a Microfluidics Chip?

A microfluidics chip, also known as a lab-on-a-chip or a microfluidic device, is a miniaturized system that integrates various components for handling, controlling, and analyzing fluids at a microscale level.

Microfluidic chips typically consist of a substrate, such as glass or silicon, on which channels and chambers are patterned using microfabrication techniques. These channels and chambers can be used to manipulate and control the flow of fluids, such as biological samples, chemical reagents, or cells, with high precision and accuracy.

Microfluidic chips can perform a wide range of functions, including sample preparation, chemical synthesis, biochemical analysis, and medical diagnostics. They have many advantages over traditional laboratory techniques, such as faster analysis time, lower sample and reagent consumption, and higher throughput.

Microfluidic chips have found applications in various fields, including biology, chemistry, medicine, and environmental monitoring. Some examples of microfluidic chip applications include DNA sequencing, single-cell analysis, drug discovery, point-of-care diagnostics, and water quality monitoring.

What is Microfluidics Lab on a Chip?

A microfluidics lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a miniaturized system that integrates multiple laboratory functions onto a single microfluidic device, such as sample preparation, mixing, reaction, separation, and detection.

A microfluidics LOC typically consists of a substrate, such as glass or silicon, on which channels, chambers, valves, and sensors are patterned using microfabrication techniques. These components can be used to manipulate and control the flow of fluids and perform a wide range of laboratory functions.

Microfluidics LOCs have many advantages over traditional laboratory techniques, such as faster analysis time, lower sample and reagent consumption, and higher throughput. They also offer portability and point-of-care applications, allowing for rapid and accurate diagnosis in remote or resource-limited settings.

Microfluidics LOCs have found applications in various fields, including biology, chemistry, medicine, and environmental monitoring. Some examples of microfluidics LOC applications include DNA sequencing, single-cell analysis, drug discovery, point-of-care diagnostics, and water quality monitoring.

What Are the Steps to Fabricate a Microfluidic Chip?

The fabrication of a microfluidic chip typically involves a series of steps, which may vary depending on the specific design and materials used. Here is a general overview of the steps involved in the fabrication process:

  1. Substrate Preparation: The first step involves preparing the substrate, which can be made of materials such as glass, silicon, or polymer. The substrate is cleaned and coated with a thin layer of photoresist material.

  2. Patterning: Next, the photoresist layer is patterned using lithography techniques to create the desired channel and chamber structures on the substrate.

  3. Etching: The substrate is then subjected to a chemical or plasma etching process to remove the unwanted material and create the microfluidic channels and chambers.

  4. Bonding: If multiple layers are required, the layers are bonded together using techniques such as thermal bonding or adhesive bonding.

  5. Surface Treatment: The surface of the microfluidic channels and chambers may be treated with a surface modification technique to enhance the surface properties or functionalize the surface for specific applications.

  6. Testing and Validation: Finally, the microfluidic chip is tested and validated for its functionality, performance, and reliability.

Microfluidic chip fabrication is a complex process that requires expertise in microfabrication techniques, material science, and fluid dynamics. Advanced microfluidic chips may also require additional steps such as deposition, electrode fabrication, or integration with other functional components.

Silicon Wafers Microfluidics

Integrated Circuits (IC), also known as semiconductor chips, are packed so tightly with billions of electronic components that they could be faked as a single piece of silicon, but while they fool themselves, they are actually packed with hundreds of thousands of components. These resistors and capacitors work together to perform logic operations and store data. The design of an integrated circuit requires a series of manufacturing steps that introduce precise amounts of chemicals into selected areas of a silicon wafer to form microscopic devices and compounds. The manufacturing process involves the production of electronic circuits on wafers made of a wide range of materials, including copper, aluminum, silicon and other metals. [Sources: 10]

Silicon discs are produced with an oxide layer and a photoresist polymer, which removes nitride and bonds the silicon to the control layer of the substrate. The next day, a chemical agent is used to remove all oxide layers that do not protect the photorefers, followed by the removal of chemical agents from the desired area of the silicon wafer, then the fluid layer (silicon bonded to Pyrex) is cut and peeled off and removed from its substrate. After the oxide has been removed and spun, fine structures are etched into the surface of a silicone wafer with a fine structure. [Sources: 5, 6, 14, 16]

The control layer is produced by casting a mould of silicon wafer, fluid layer and electrode (microfluidic channel) onto the silicon wafer. Figure 6c shows a self-venting self-spinning structure with black silicon patterns and a surface of the wafers passivated with Al-2-O-3, while the electrodes and microfluidic channels are patterned as explained above. The flow layers are produced after casting the dimethylsiloxane polymer (vulcanized at room temperature) and GE polymers, with the control layers and the flow layer consisting of an Etsu poly (1,2,3-dioxane) polymer and silicon. [Sources: 0, 9]

The starting material is the dimethylsiloxane poly (1,2,3-dioxane) polymer, which has a resistance of 5 - 20 ohms and a resistance of 0.5 - 10 ohms. We have a good understanding of what to look for in order to create microfluidic channels on silicon wafers, including good channel definition and biocompatibility. [Sources: 10, 15]

When using a silicon wafer, several steps must be carried out to ensure that the manufacture of the channel back and the access holes do not interfere with each other. When the TSV is punched into the silicon wafers, it is connected to an overpressure vacuum to stop the etching process. The insulation is designed to ensure multiplexity by enabling the selected e-gate. [Sources: 3, 7, 9]

While some well-developed technologies come directly from semiconductor manufacturing, most of these processes are made in silicon. Microfluidic glass networks are made using silicon wafers and other materials such as glass, as described in Section 11. However, there is now a toolbox to produce microfibers with a wide range of applications, not only for glass but also for silicon wafers. This starts with the development of a high-performance, cost-effective and easy-to-use glass wafer for the production of microfluidics. [Sources: 10, 11]

The Mohanty laboratory at UTA is now using this system to study neurons that grow on silicon wafers. The researchers used the system to measure changes in the level of red blood cells. The second objective is to investigate the effects of microfluidics when deposited on silicon oxide or silicon substrate. This is used in most electronics laboratories to manufacture semiconductors, such as the semiconductor chips in smartphones and other electronic devices. [Sources: 12, 13]

Figures 2 and 3 schematically show the effects of microfluidics on silicon wafers when applied and the effect of silicon oxide on the surface of the wafer. Figure 3 shows the influence of a spilled layer of nanoscale microfluidic material on a silicon substrate on blood cells. [Sources: 7, 10]

PCR chips from Imec and Panasonic are based on a microfluidic silicon platform for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). They use LOC, which consists of LOC for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP, and a layer of silicon. [Sources: 16]

Poly - N - Isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm) Embedded in a thermally responsive polymer with reversible phase transitions (39 m of experiments with PDMS Sylgard 184 and attempts to use it on Si wafers). The MRSI-S HVM nozzle bonder is capable of holding the nozzles III and V of a wafer, placing and connecting them to a 12-inch silicon wading device, including fine lateral movements. [Sources: 1, 2]

Next, a suitable photosensitive polymer photocoating is spun onto the silicon wafer and ultraviolet light is exposed to the wafers through a superimposed mask. [Sources: 8]

The eutectic bonding process is carried out by coating the silicon and glass wafers with patterned gold and aluminum layers. Two different types of wafers can be used, and the patterned adhesive bonding processes also allow the connection between two different types of silicon, such as silicon glass and gold glass. This is achieved by applying a gold or aluminum layer to the gold layer and then a pattern to the glass layer. [Sources: 4, 7, 9]