UniversityWafer, Inc is the leading silicon wafer distributor to universities and research centers internationally.
"The (silicon) wafers have arrived today, and we really pleased with them! Thumbs up to your production crew!"
Researcher from University of Exeter
Free Technical Assiatance on All Substrates!
Super thin Si 100mm P/B (100) 1-10 ohm-cm 25um 2um thin Silicon also available!
We have plenty of silicon wafers at a low price and small quantities of partial cassettes so you can buy less than 25 wafers and as few as one Si wafer.
Sputtered and Evaporated metals
We can custom make wafers in small quantities. We can dice them, thin them to 2um. We have undoped, low doped and highly doped Silicon substrates that are always in stock.
Typical Client Question regarding silicon wafers:
After looking at your online store, I think we might go with your cheapest silicon wafers, product ID 444. I am in a group that is working on a Senior Design Project to create a biobattery. We need a substrate to pattern with photo-lithography and subsequently deposit various precious metals on that will catalyze certain reactions and conduct electricity. If you have any advice on specific types of wafers we will need for such nano electronic devices I would be happy to know. Thanks.
We make nanomaterials in our lab and one approach is using electrical explosion of wires (EEW). We used one of Scott's old Si wafers (doped with B) and broke off a strip of Si that we attached to electrodes in our EEW apparatus. It worked nicely and we are looking to do the same thing with Ge (Germanium Wafer). We need a wafer that is less than 500 microns thick.
Fill out the form and receive an immediate quote. See bottom of page for recent Silicon Wafers specials.
"...to do ini al tests for deep anisotropic etching of diﬀrac on gra ngs. We have to test diﬀerent masking material and etch solu ons with these (silicon) wafers. Expected result will be part of a later PhD thesis. After the planned etching the wafers will be not further used and will be disposed.
Silicon Wafer Items Used
"As a (silicon) substrate for nanoparticle formation in ionic liquids. The nanoparticles are for fuel cell investigations."
Why pay more for SOI wafers when you don't have to?
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We have a large selection of Prime, Test and Mechanical Grade Silicon wafers
1" - 12" Silicon Wafers low doped and highly doped in stock and ready to ship. Examples full and partial silicon wafer cassettes include:
We have Ultra-Flat Silicon with the following spec
Prime Silicon Wafers 100mm P-type /Boron doped <1-0-0> 490-510 micron 0.005-.020 ohm-cm Semi Std Double Side Polished
The majority of our Prime Grade wafers have a roughness value Ra<5Å .
A Si wafer, or substrate, or silicon is grown in a tube from a seed into a long ingot that is then sliced into various thicknesses used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics. The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and over the wafer and undergoes many microfabrication process steps such as doping or ion implantation, etching, deposition of various materials, and photolithographic patterning. Finally the individual microcircuits are separated (dicing) and packaged.
Yes! We sell Platinised and thin films of almost all the metals! Just let us know the specs and quantity for an immediate quote!
Yes! We sell as few as one Silicon wafer. We sell in individual wafer carrier.
The RCA clean is a standard set of wafer cleaning steps which need to be performed before high-temperature processing steps (oxidation, diffusion, CVD) of silicon wafers in semiconductor manufacturing.
Werner Kern developed the basic procedure in 1965 while working for RCA, the Radio Corporation of America. It involves the following chemical processes performed in sequence:
Removal of the organic contaminants (organic clean + particle clean)
Removal of thin oxide layer (oxide strip, optional)
Removal of ionic contamination (ionic clean)
Yes! We can laser down the wafer so you could get two 100mm from one 200mm wafers including flats!
It's when you have a wafer that has thin films or oxide etc on them and we strip and clean them so the wafers can be reused.
Often companies that want to save money or protect their intellectual property will reclaim their wafers.
Si Wafer Quote!
Clients have used the following Si Wafer for the coating research:
We also manufacture thin slice of pure silicon with electronic properties that ranges the full spectrum of specs and diameters from 25.4mm to 300mm with diced substrates available as well.
We can customize boron phosphide for your research of high-power, high-frequency devices as well as laser diodes.
Vicinal silicon crystallography is the plane the position of which varies very little from that of a fundamental plane of the form.
Researcher requested a the following quote:
We are interested in acquiring vicinal Si (100) wafers with a six-degree miscut angle. We would prefer 2" wafers but any larger size is acceptable. We do not have any other doping/thickness requirements. How quickly would we be able to get them if we were to order and what is your pricing for these?
2", 500um, P type, <100> off to <110> 6 degree SSP
Pricing depends on quantity.
Researchers have used the following substrates with great success!
Si Item #809 - 100mm N/P <100> 1-10 ohm-cm 500um SSP Prime
Si Item #783 - 100mm P/B <100> 1-10 ohm-cm 500um SSP Prime Grade
New anode technology that uses a thin film of porous pure silicon could lead to less-expensive lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles that charge in just a few minutes and provide over 200 mile range. The technology could help increase an EV’s range by 30 percent or more.
Li15Si4 is the new material that combines silicon with lithium. UniversityWafer, Inc. can help researchers source the material for their lab.
However, the latest results confuse what we know about the element and the individual elements on its surface. To be sure, researchers should know all about silicon by now, but they don't, at least not yet.
Silicon was first identified in 1824 by Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius, but it has been worshipped by a number of other chemists and physicists over the last two centuries, from the late 19th century to the early 20th century.
Interest in silicon increased in the late 1970s and early 1980s, when silicon transistors were developed to replace vacuum tubes in electronic devices such as computers, televisions, and mobile phones. It has since become the preferred material for electronic devices because it can make small circuits and integrate them into small chips.
Silicon ushered in the so-called silicon revolution, which has changed society and permeated every corner of daily life. When we speak of semiconductor technology, we are talking about silicon crystals, which are normally cut from larger crystals to form thin wafers.
This has enabled enormous computing capacity, which has reshaped the world by processing huge amounts of data and continuously accessing valuable information. While crystalline silicon has long been studied, the surface of the thin silicon layer has played an important role in the development of computer chips, as it is a key component in many of its applications. There is no doubt that the basic properties of the silicon surface are still unknown and widely discussed.
He joined IBM's Thomas J. Watson Laboratory to help develop and apply new surface inspection techniques. PhD student, has been working with metal surfaces since his doctorate and continues to work well with them and understand them well, as well as facilitating the development of new techniques.
At the time, I was an outsider in silicon surface research, so Mr. Cary asked me why I wasn't interested in silicon surfaces.
When the opportunity came up to do a new kind of measurement that no one had done before, I saw an opportunity and thought, "Why not?
The new attempt to study silicon surfaces involves understanding Si (111), which has been widely studied since 1957 but whose surface structure has never been understood. refers to the fact that the crystal is halved and a flat plane of atoms remains on the surface. To measure this, a surface must be cleaned and heated to remove dirt, with its atoms arranged like marbles in different configurations.
The annealed Si (111) surfaces exhibit a diffraction pattern of 7x7, which is derived from the unusual atomic structure they possess. This pattern fascinates everyone who looks at it, and it has undoubtedly become one of the most widely studied semiconductor surfaces, if one excludes none. The latest discovery, which will be discussed later in this article, is based on initial studies of Si11 surfaces.
The new temperature-dependent measurements of 7x7 show many interesting electronic transitions that were not observed before. Normally, if a surface is a semiconductor, it would be expected to become an insulator at low temperatures, but more importantly, it would be insulated at lower temperatures (about 50 K). In 1983, a theoretical model of the 2x1 structure was proposed and established, but the structure and chemical composition of a 7X7 surface was much more complex and elusive. In the 1980s, a new method of studying silicon surfaces - the Si (111) diffraction pattern - was developed, which allowed us to study other properties of this pattern. What people knew at the time was that if you broke a crystalline silicon rod in 111 directions, you would get a simple diffraction pattern of 2X1, and if the 2X2 surface were heated, the surface would form the 7Z7 pattern and be very stable at high temperatures.
In general, such behaviour has a specific temperature dependence, but in 7x7 we found another temperature dependency. The surface is neither semiconducting nor metallic, so it is a very unusual effect to create electrons on the surface of the metal isolate, depending on how the electrons are aligned.
This was proposed in 1985 to accommodate diffraction experiments, but the problem was that the calculated structure was always metallic, which contradicted the experiments. The 1985 7x7 structure, which was confirmed as the lowest energy and most stable structure, was revealed in the 1990s, when calculations were mature and could be performed to predict the complex structures of the 7X7 surface.
This became the unsolved paradox of the silicon surface and the subject of a so-called scanning tunnelling microscope, for which he and other IBM colleagues received the Nobel Prize in Physics in Zurich in 1986. The paradoxes of 7x7 were rediscovered in the 1990s, this time by Bob Kowalski and colleagues at IBM, using a new device designed to perform electron spectroscopy on silicon surfaces at atomic resolution.
The high stability of the STM design made it possible to see the electron clouds in different places on different surfaces and atoms and to dissolve their energy into atomic solvents. However, the theory did not predict the surface conditions observed at atomic resolution in 1983 and 1986. Initially, experimental measurements and their interpretation were a valid form of simplified calculations. Several researchers confirmed the new electronic state at the time, but again, no one had a clear explanation.
In the insulation of floors, the paradox of the 7x7 surface became the basis for the development of a new type of high-temperature, low-energy electronic state of silicon.
I left the lab in 1993 to pursue other interests and retired in 2005, completely in the paradise of my surroundings in Florida. I # ve never played so many rounds of golf in a year, caught so many fish in a single day, or played and played so long, at a time when the game of golf seemed to be getting worse, not better.
That's when I decided to write to my grandchildren about why I became a scientist and what it means to be a scientist. Even then, I remembered all that and was kind of confused about what I was ever going to be.
After two years of studying the results of the past and consulting the literature, I discovered two also more recent paradoxes and why they arose. To my surprise, despite many new studies, they have never been resolved, and there are many structures proposed over the years that would not fit either. These discoveries were made by attempting a reverse engineering process, taking into account certain features that an alternative structure might take into account. They are all based on many experiments, which today tell us much more than theoretical calculations and the state of the art.
To my surprise, I found a new structure that takes into account these unusual paradoxes, but not in the same way as the previous ones.
The trick is that in a very complex system, there can be different arrangements of atoms that look like structures from one angle but are connected by icicles stacked upright on a tray. When you look at it from the side, you see that you are actually standing on the cone, and when you look down, it is like a ball. At close range, each rung can have a different shape, such as a triangle, a circle or a cone with different shapes and sizes.
The original structure in 1985 was proposed as a two-dimensional (2D) structure, similar to that in the atom, but the details of the new structure gave it distinctly different properties. The electrons behave very differently when they are in this new 2d frame, and there are now bonds. In the 2000s, everyone in the scientific community still believed that the original 1985 structure was correct. Now, however, it has been proposed again, this time with a different structure.
In 2008, many of the researchers working on the surface switched to studying graphene, which is best known for its use as a surface for the production of high-performance electronics. Graphene is one of two materials based on carbon, but whose atoms are arranged in a hexagonal structure.
As a result, graphene has a number of properties, the most striking being a very high electron mobility, which is important for electrical devices. The discovery of graphene was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 for its role in the development of high-performance electronics and its use in materials science.
For some time now, there have been efforts to adapt other 2D structures for electrical devices. However, graphene formation on substrates has proved problematic as its formation in the substrate is crucial for highly integrated applications such as electronic devices and electronic components.
The role of silver surfaces is called into question, however, as the 2D character of silicon atoms in silver must be preserved, especially as the silicon layers become thicker. Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Engineering have discovered in a promising new electronic material that silicon can be used to form a 2d structure similar to graphene. They succeeded in this by cultivating a monolayer of silicon on a silver surface. The monolayer of 2D silicon grown on silver has several properties that correspond to those of graphene, such as a high surface area and strong electrical conductivity, which silicon requires as an ideal material for use in electronic devices and electronic components.