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We help scientists with hard to find specs. Below is a typical request:
"I have an odd application where I want to use a silicon wafer as a mirror surface for making laser scan mirrors. The problem is that I am not sure what to order. I need the wafer to be flat and polished. Your 5A finish should be OK for the surface finish but I also would like about 0.1um flatness for a 72 to 100 mm diameter and 500um thickness. (I can probably get by on 1um flatness for now.) I was looking at your 2648 and 2552 ID number parts but do not understand all the specifications. What does TTV mean?
I will have these optically coated, cut to the shape I need, and glued to a support structure. If this is project is successful, I would need about 100 for the first year and ramping up to several hundred per year on-going.
I know a lot about mirrors and materials but not much about silicon wafers and how they are specified. I am also a bit worried about them warping when the shape I need is cut out.
I would like to discuss this with you and possibly get about 10 wafers on order for testing.
Below are some diagrams of Silicon Mirros that we have recently sold."
Reference #222364 for specs and pricing.
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According to the drawing 5615
According to the drawing 5616
A corporate researcher used the following silicon blocks covered with Fe/SiO2 thin film structure as a magnetic contrast layers for the utilization as experimental structures in the polarized neutron reflectometry research.
80mm x 50mm x 15mm SPA Ra<10A,
Reference #271601 for more specs/pricing.
If you are not familiar with what a silicon mirror is, you need to know about its properties before you start looking for a silicon mirror for your application. Unlike glass, silicon is very hard and is not machinable. This means that silicon based mirrors are typically circular and have simple geometric shapes. Since they cannot be heated internally, they need to be cooled externally using water cooled pads. Until recently, silicon was the most common material used for mirrors. But now, with the advent of semiconductors, their usage has increased exponentially.
A silicon mirror is composed of two layers. One is a solid silicon layer and the other is a thin film of a dielectric material. This dielectric layer allows the material to be cooled, which is necessary for optical applications. The second layer enables the mirror to be coated and cooled. The coating on the surface of a silicon mirror also allows it to be etched. A mirror can be cut to any shape, which gives it many different applications.
The first layer of the silicon mirror is made from a highly doped slice of silicon ingot. This slice is the main component of a laser optic. The second layer of the mirror is a coating. This coating gives the mirror its luster. Another layer of the silicon mirror is gold metallic. This coating is protected and can withstand the temperature of a light source without damaging it. This layer is made of silicon and is used in laser resonators.
After polishing the silicon plane of the mirror with a magnetorheological finish (MRF-11), the square (i.e. flatness is 30 nm or less) is about L-50, with the wavelength L being 632.8 nm, or about the same wavelength as the Sun. [Sources: 3, 4]
It can also be advantageous to obtain crystalline mirrors on substrates with a wide range of geometries and materials. For high performance applications, the use of silicon as the primary material for the mirror material (or a combination of both) may also be beneficial. The preferred mirror materials, starting with prepreg material made from moulded fibre parts, can then be tailored to the specific requirements of a specific application, such as high performance or high efficiency. [Sources: 1, 5]
Metal-coated mirrors are considered crystalline mirrors because they do not have a monocrystalline structure. Other mirror materials are aluminium and glass, but these materials are much more difficult to process than silicon due to their high thermal conductivity and high surface area. [Sources: 1, 5]
Techniques have therefore been developed to obtain semiconductors, including single crystal silicon, in a transparent substrate. The semiconductor substrate is glued to other transparent substrates, typically made of molten silicon or sapphire, and the actual mirror structure is removed from it (e.g. by round etching). [Sources: 2, 5]
The silicon carbide mirrors produced in this way have been used commercially for a wide range of applications, such as remote sensing satellites (see Figure 2). In summary, a combination of lost foam, cast silicon - carbides (green bodies), sintering reactions and joining technology - formed reactions (red bodies) is used to produce a single crystal silicon mirror with honeycomb structure (blue body) for use on telescopes and satellites. The honeycombs are connected by the use of two different semiconductor substrates (silicon and sapphire) and a chemical reaction. [Sources: 1, 3]
The graphite preform is then converted into silicon (which is filled if necessary) and reacts with SiO in a chamber. The reaction and binding takes place by pressing the preforms into the silicon carbide substrates (green bodies) at a temperature of 1,000 degrees Celsius. [Sources: 0]
In the green state, which is sintered at about 1700 K, the molten silicon reacts with the carbon to form silicon carbide. Variations in the sintered process infiltrate the silicon with carbon (powder), which, when it becomes silicon (100% carbon), reacts with silicon to leave residual carbon. This remaining silicon then fills the pores in the green body joints and makes the connected green bodies dense. [Sources: 0, 3]
It also has high thermal stability, which means that it can be used in a variety of applications such as solar cells, solar panels and solar power plants. [Sources: 1]
This paper also represents a preliminary potential study that can be accepted for post-processing of single crystal silicon mirrors. The experimental results may be the result of the use of the combined technique SAE - EJP to improve the performance of the single crystalline silicon mirror in a variety of applications such as solar cells, solar collectors and solar power plants. Improving the thermal stability and conductivity of a single crystal of silicon that is mirrored is a goal pursued by the research team at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE) and the University of California, Berkeley. This research result can also be an important step in the implementation of post-processing technologies to improve the quality and efficiency of high-performance single crystal mirrors in the photovoltaic sector. [Sources: 2]
In this article we present a new design for a single - crystalline nitrogen - cooled silicon mirror. The final cooled boom design takes into account the mounting rigidity described in the previous paragraph as well as the thermal stability and conductivity of the single crystalline silicon mirrors. [Sources: 7]
Each contains a 5 mm diameter semiconductor coating, which is connected to a molten silicon substrate in a small flat orientation for this purpose. The front and back are connected to the honeycomb core and joined together with epoxy phenolic resin and polycarbosilan to form a fibre-reinforced composite material. [Sources: 1, 5]
This has certain advantages over the CVD process in terms of the ability to form polymers of different shapes. Pure silicon carbide makes it suitable for the production of high-performance, flexible and flexible materials such as solar cells. [Sources: 1]
We have also shown that Gallium Phosphide (GaP) and AlGaP multi-layers can be grown from a single crystalline silicon. However, our post-processing technology is not as advanced as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) mirrors based on mirrors. We used computer-controlled optical surfaces (pictured) for the first time in a high-resolution, multi-layer silicon-carbide mirror. [Sources: 2, 5]
GaP composites react with molten silicon to form dense silicon-silicon carbide composites. The end product is a dense, multi-layer, high-resolution mirror formed from the silicon-carbide composite. [Sources: 0, 1]