A researcher requested the following quote:
We are looking highest grade quartz blanks. Do you sell Aa grade quartz samples? Or what is the highest quality quartz blank you can offer? Also, do you sell electrically-swept quartz blanks?
We are interested in standard half-inch or 1cm by 1cm square z/x-cut pieces. We'd like the thicknesses to vary from 0.5 to 5mm.
As for quantities, for the first tests, we'd like to buy 3 to 10 each type.
Could you tell me which grade you can offer? Is it electrically swept? This is important to us but I couldn't find this information on your website.
UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted
0.5mm Dia Z/X-cut 0.5mm Thick DSP SAW seedless Ra <1nm
Reference #269134 for pricing.
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Swept quartz is a kind of quartz crystal that has been treated in order to remove certain impurities. The process is also used to improve the sensitivity of quartz crystals to radiation. It is usually performed by placing electrodes on the Z-surfaces of lumbered quartz bars. These electrodes create an electric field of about 1 kV/cm. The bar is then heated up to 500 °C in inert or hydrogen-containing atmospheres. A voltage probe is then used to measure the current that flows through the bar.
When choosing a quartz crystal resonator, it's important to select the right type of cutting to maximize frequency range, stability, and temperature coefficient. Various cuts are available, and some are more popular in certain applications than others. The most common cut is called AT cut, and it is used in radio systems, oscillators, and electronic instruments. This crystal type is best suited for frequencies ranging from 500 kHz to 300 MHz.
During the past 25 years, different methods have been employed for LC cut quartz crystal resonators. One technique, called sweeping, has been used to improve quartz resonator performance. The sweeping process can be used to remove impurities, including Al3+ and H+, two of the most debilitating impurities in quartz.
This method uses elastic materials, such as steel, to cut crystals. Elastic materials, such as steel, have natural resonant frequencies. Because of their high sound speed and elasticity, steel was a popular choice for mechanical filters before quartz. The resonant frequency of an object depends on its shape, elasticity, and size. The shape of the crystal also influences its frequency.
While both LC and AT cut quartz crystals have similar frequency characteristics, BT cut quartz crystals have poorer temperature characteristics than AT cut quartz crystals. However, BT cut quartz crystals are more often used for higher frequency applications, such as fundamental and overtone operation.
The SARP optical swept quartz technique is a new technique that uses a laser to create a holographic image of a crystal. It uses a planar quartz crystal with an annular spacer to create an image. These two elements form a Fabry-Perot resonator, which supports standing-wave elastic modes at low temperatures.
When a crystal oscillator is exposed to radiation, it can change the frequency of its oscillator, thereby changing the weakly bound compensators and elastic constants. This changes the crystal series resonance, which can eventually cause the crystal oscillator to cease oscillating. Swept quartz crystals are manufactured for this reason.
This technique has a number of advantages, including the ability to measure the optical properties of different materials. One of them is its ability to detect interference colors. The colors that move toward or away from the optical axes are referred to as isogyres, and the direction of the axis is known as the optic axis.
The color interference color of the material is a function of the thickness and birefringence of the mineral. In order to determine the retardation, the maximum interference color should be calculated. Typically, a positive mineral has a yellow center color, with blue concave side colors. Conversely, a negative mineral will have an opposite color change.
Premium-Q swept quartz has a very narrow resonance band and is ideal for communications, radar, beacons, and deep space exploration. This crystal is also excellent for use in up/down converters and navigation. Its low resonant frequency helps it filter out unwanted frequencies. It is one of the most popular choices for many other applications, including jewelry.
Premium-Q swept quartz resonators were used in a series of experiments. One of these tests involved high-purity platinum electrodes swept across the crystals. Ten units were swept over five bars to determine transient and accumulated frequency drifts. Four of these resonator units were then tested in a mixed neutrongamma environment.
The resonant frequency of quartz crystal is affected by many factors, including temperature. In addition, the size and angle at which quartz is cut will determine its resonant frequency. To minimize these environmental effects, several designs have been developed to help reduce these effects. One such design is the OCXO. This oscillator is ideal for short-term measurements and has a good stability over time. However, its long-term stability is limited by aging of the crystal.
The TCXO is a type of oscillator that is capable of measuring both frequency and temperature. Its frequency is adjustable externally, and it can be calibrated at regular intervals. This helps to remove the effects of crystal ageing. Its tolerances are representative, and sales staff can advise on other parameters.
The TCXO has a wide frequency range, from 369 MHz to 380 MHz. Moreover, it can be configured to follow a straight linear curve over a specified sweep voltage range. It also comes with an offset frequency that tells the user what room temperature setting the oscillator was designed for.
The frequency stability of a TCXO is better than that of an unswept quartz crystal. During irradiation, the TCXO is less sensitive to temperature variations than the unswept quartz crystal. Using a TCXO, the frequency sensitivity can be reduced to 0.1ppm over the operating temperature range.
TCXOs are expensive compared to other types of oscillators. However, they are also particularly precise. Their accuracy allows them to be used for precision frequency measurements. This means that they are more accurate and more expensive than other types of oscillators. A TCXO has 5 functional blocks, which work together to achieve frequency stability.
Another important factor in TCXOs is their temperature sensitivity. The temperature of a crystal affects its frequency, so it is important to compensate for that temperature. Using temperature-sensitive quartz can be a good idea for many applications, but there is also a trade-off to consider. Too high a feedback level can cause unwanted modes of the quartz crystal.
MCXO swept quartz crystals are a unique and versatile type of crystal that is resistant to radiation levels of up to 100 kRad (100 kilotons per square meter). They are commonly used for military and space applications due to their excellent radiation resistance and high purity.
MCXO swept quartz is not necessary for all MCXOs. If radiation is not a major concern for your device, there is no need to use swept quartz. Scanned quartz crystals have a narrow resonance band and therefore filter out unwanted frequencies. This means that they are better suited for applications in which RF power is not a significant factor.
In addition to reducing phase noise, MCXO swept quartz has a low level of sensitivity to high magnetic fields. The frequency shift of swept quartz is linear at low levels of drive, but it becomes asymmetric at high levels of drive. This is a good feature for sensitive devices in high-speed applications.
To use MCXO, you need to know the beat frequency. This is an important parameter because it allows the resonator to detect temperature fluctuations. You also need a load capacitor with a large temperature coefficient. The temperature characteristics of a load capacitor affect the amount of rotation that can be observed. For example, a seventh order MCXO is sensitive to changes in oven temperature.
The OX-249 family simplifies the selection of space grade OCXOs by incorporating many engineering features into one product. This family of oscillators features a simple part numbering system, clear screening options, and good phase noise. Additionally, it offers a wide frequency range and both HCMOS and sinewave outputs.
This space-level quartz is ideally suited for communications, radar, beacons, and deep-space exploration. Its crystals can withstand radiation levels of 100kRad and one kGy. It is also used in military and commercial space missions. Its sturdiness makes it suitable for military and commercial applications, including in-orbit space missions. In addition, it is remarkably resistant to shock and vibration.
An OCXO's performance is greatly influenced by the cut of its quartz crystal. Some crystals are cut to the AT cut, while others are cut to the SC cut. Generally, the SC cut offers better frequency stability, but has a limited response to temperature changes. A temperature compensated crystal oscillator compensates for this sensitivity by ensuring the crystal is kept at a constant temperature.
This process also reduces the number of etch tunnels in the quartz crystal. It also eliminates the hydrogen and lithium that would otherwise have accumulated in the lattice. The result is an OCXO crystal with an exceptional stability.