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Laser diodes, also known as semiconductor lasers, are light-emitting devices that produce coherent and monochromatic light. They consist of a p-n junction formed by a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor, which is placed within a cavity that provides feedback to the light produced. When a current is applied, electrons and holes recombine in the junction and produce light. The light is then amplified and confined within the cavity to produce a laser beam. Laser diodes are compact, efficient, and have a fast response time, making them useful in a wide range of applications, such as optical communication, laser printing, and laser scanning. They also find use in scientific and industrial applications, such as spectroscopy and material processing.
The substrate used to fabricate laser diodes is typically a material that provides a smooth, uniform, and electrically insulating surface on which to grow the active layer of the laser diode. Some common substrates used in laser diode fabrication include:
These are just a few examples of substrates commonly used for laser diode fabrication. The choice of substrate depends on the specific requirements of the laser, such as the wavelength of the light produced, the power output, and the operating environment.