Silicon Wafer Semiconductor Applications

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What Applications Are You Using your Silicon Wafers for?

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What are Silicon Wafers Physical Properties?

See below for silicon properties.

Density, g/cm3 2.329
Melting point, °C 1412
Molecular weight 28.09
Surface tension, liquid at mp, mN/m 736
Thermal linear expansion @25°C 2.55 x 10-6
Thermal conductivity @27°C, W/(m x °C) 159
Specific heat capacity (solid), J/(kg x °C) 712
Thermal coefficient of refractive index @ 25°C 1.50 x 10-4
Modulus of rupture, MPa 125
Mohs hardness 7
Young modulus (E), Pa 1.89 x 1010
Shear modulus (G), Pa 7.99 x 1010
Poisson ratio 0.266
Solubility in water insoluble Insoluble

What is the Silicon Wafer Refractive Index?

Below is the refractive index of silicon wafers.

According to the formula

silicon refractive index vs wavelength formula

where e0 = 11.67 is static permittivity, refractive index of
silicon tends to 3.416, when wavelength tends to infinity
(to 1000 μm and more in our case).

Silicon Refractive Index vs Wavelength.

μm n μm n
1.40 3.4900 5.83 3.4241
1.50 3.4841 5.92 3.4239
1.66 3.4700 6.00 3.4238
1.82 3.4600 6.50 3.4232
2.00 3.4561 6.92 3.4228
2.50 3.4431 7.00 3.4227
3.00 3.4360 7.14 3.4226
3.30 3.4326 7.30 3.4225
3.50 3.4317 7.50 3.4224
4.00 3.4289 7.72 3.4222
4.50 3.4270 8.00 3.4220
5.00 3.4256 8.16 3.4220
5.19 3.4200 8.50 3.4218
5.50 3.4246 9.00 3.4216
5.70 3.4243 9.09 3.4215

Silicon Wafer Electrical Properties

Below is a table shows the electrical properties of silicon.

Intrinsic resistivity, kOhm x cm 240
Intrinsic electron drift mobility, cm2/(V x s) 1500
Number of intrinsic electrons, cm-3 .22 x 1010
Ohm x cm (n-type), 1015/cm3 2.93
1 Ohm x cm (p-type), 1015/cm3 7.33
Intrinsic hole drift mobility, cm2/(V x s) 600
Band gap, minimum, eV 300 K 1.14
0 K 1.17

Silicon Wafer Applications

The semiconductor industry generates greater $300 Billion annualy in gross sales. The majority of sales are associated with silicon. A hiccup in this industry, say if Moore's Law is finally reached then a collapse in the global economy could happen and quickly!

Below are just some of Silicon Wafer Real-World Uses

  • Autos - sensors etc.
  • Cameras CMOS
  • Diplays
  • Cell Phone Chips
  • Computer Chips

real world silicon wafer applications


Would you upgrade your current computer if it provided no increase in performance? Would companies update server farms if yesterday's technology is just as good? Would you pay ten times the amount for a computer or mobile device with new composite chips that may replace silicon chips? Probably not. This could rapidly slow computer upgrades and replacements and could conceivabally throw the world into a recession or worse. This potential tech correction would be larger than the bust of the early 2000s.

So what uses are so important that the world cannot live without it?

For starters your phone's microchips. Silicon Microchip

Your current vehicle's sensors.

The future Driverless vehicle sensors.

What do some wafers have JEIDA Flats while other silicon wafers have semiconductor or (SEMI) standard flats?

Why Use Silicon for Diffraction Gratings and Grisms?

A researcher recently procured the followng silicon ingot for micromachining silicon diffractive optics and silicon grisms for space observatories.

150mm Undoped (111) FZ >8,000 ohm-cm 300mm in length

Silicon is stable at very cold or cryogenic temperatures that is required to work in the infrared. Silicon’s high refraction index (3.4) is a great transmission in the 1.1-7 micron range is great for gratings and grisms for spectrographs that operate in the near infrared (NIR). Silicon is also ubiqutous and tooling and experience readily available.

Finally, silicon can be processed with well-known techniques originally devised for the semiconductor industry. Because silicon has a crystalline structure with high anisotropic etch ratio (in other words, it etches in one direction much faster than it etches in another), very smooth, near-perfect grooves can be micro-machined into the surface.

These devices offer substantial advantages in compactness, formatting, and efficiency over other dispersive devices. For example, high-resolution spectrographs designed around immersion gratings can have volumes an order of magnitude smaller than comparable instruments built around conventional gratings. In addition, the ability to make coarse grooves using micromachining allows us to produce gratings that make it possible for the first time for infrared instruments to have continuous wavelength coverage over large bands at high resolution.

Silicon Grisms

Grisms are dispersive transmission optics that are often used in instruments that combine imaging and spectroscopy. The resolving power of devices with the same opening angle depends on the refractive index of the substrate as (n-1). Silicon grisms of a given size have resolving powers 3-4 times greater than those of grisms made from glass or other low index materials


Fabrication and test of silicon grisms for JWST-NIRCam

Silicon immersion grating spectrograph design for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility