Substrates Used to Fabricate Solar Cells

university wafer substrates

Wafers to Fabricate Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

A researcher requeted the following quote:

I am a PhD student and currently I am using your ITO glass substrates to make dye-sensitized solar cells. I wonder what is the thickness of the ITO layer on the glass? - I use the 1.1 mm thickness rectangle glass slides.

Please reference #221838 for specs and price quoted.

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Underwater Solar Cells

A graduate student working in the research domain requested help with the following:

My group is focusing on the harvesting of solar energy underwater. We are looking for the supply of photovoltaic cells having a bandgap in the range of 1.8eV to 2.3eV in order to optimize solar energy. Preferably looking for Indium Gallium Phosphide (InGaP), Gallium Arsenide. We would like to know if you have a product which can suffice our need? We would also like if we could get a quotation for same with delivery time. Awaiting your response. 


We did literature study before preparing the offer. Because the testingHere is the image depicting a futuristic underwater solar cell, designed for use underwater, surrounded by a vibrant marine ecosystem. and the final product water depth are different, two different kinds of panels, each one designed for a different depth of water, are advised to use. For shallow water the panel with TJ cells are recommended to use and for deeper water, the panel with DJ cells are recommended to use. Our offer is valid for DJ or TJ, price is the same for both.  

Please check attached the water absorption spectrums from the different sources in the literature. Each has minor differences but generally limited by the 20m for IR radiation. Besides, the band gap (1.8eV to 2.3eV which is between 540nm to ~690nm) doesn’t match conventional TJ cells. Please also check out the band gap diagram from the attached figures. Germanium junction (band gap 0,7eV) will not produce so much and may cause more losses than what it brings. So, we recommend Dual junction made of GaAs/ (Al)GaInP which is best fitting to your requirements. 
Additional notes: Usually sea water absorption spectrum may not allow Germanium junction to produce enough efficiency (<1%) due to IR absorption of the water surface (only Works in the dept less than a few meters). Therefore our offer also includes DJ which can also work almost without a significant change in the efficiency similarly to TJ. Since we don't know the power consumption and current requirements or AC/DC operation etc. of the customer module to be powered by the panels we prepared a standard generic solution. Please let us know if the customer has additional requirements like inverter etc. They can be subject to separate quotes from us.

We offer:

Item   Qty.   Description
HF91. 1   Triple junction or Dual Junction SC
for 1.8eV to 2.3 eV.
Min 10 cells, 12V output, panel size< 1sqm


Item   Qty.   Description

HF91b. 1   Special Encapsulation for
underwater use. Water resistant,
Anti-Algae coating, waterproof
Electrical sockets

Item   Qty.   Description
HF91c. 1   Fresnel Lens Concentrator Module
mounted on panel.

Reference #257878 for specs and pricing.

What are Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells?

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a type of solar cell that uses a thin film of semiconductor material dye-sensitized solar cells designed in a rectangular shape, featuring a color palette representing UV light. The solar cells are arrayed in rows and columns, each displaying various hues from deep purples to bright blues, indicative of UV light's spectrum. This illustration combines the appearance of contemporary solar panels with a futuristic and artistic design.coated with a dye to absorb sunlight and generate electricity. The dye absorbs sunlight and excites electrons, which are then transferred to the semiconductor material. The excited electrons are collected by an electrode and used to generate an electric current.

DSSCs are a type of thin film solar cell and are sometimes referred to as Grätzel cells, after the scientist who developed the technology. They are a relatively inexpensive and easy-to-manufacture alternative to traditional crystalline silicon solar cells and are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including portable electronic devices, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), and solar concentrators.

One of the main advantages of DSSCs is their ability to use a wide range of dyes to absorb different wavelengths of light, which allows them to be more efficient at converting sunlight into electricity compared to traditional silicon solar cells. They also have a low temperature coefficient, which means that their efficiency is not significantly affected by changes in temperature. However, DSSCs have lower efficiency compared to traditional silicon solar cells and have a shorter lifespan due to the degradation of the dye over time.

How to Make Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a form of photovoltaic cell that utilizes a titanium dioxide or metal oxide as the photosensitizer, resulting in higher efficiency and reduced costs. They are manufactured by processing and coating the surface of a silicon solar cell with the metal or titanium dioxide. Then, the chemical reaction that occurs results in the formation of an oxidation product that absorbs light and generates electricity. This process allows for high efficiency of up to 13%. The technology is a promising alternative to conventional silicon solar cells.

Titanium dioxide

Titanium dioxide dye-sensitized solar cells are a new and emerging photovoltaic technology. This type of solar cell is capable of harvesting a large proportion of incident solar energy. It also has low fabrication cost and is environmentally friendly.

The solar conversion efficiency of these dye cells is comparable to silicon-based solar cells. These devices have the potential to address energy crises and environmental problems caused by fossil fuels. They can be used to generate electrical power from solar sources and are readily recyclable.

These types of solar cells have gained a lot of attention from the research community. In particular, researchers have been exploring how to change the response of titanium dioxide to the UV and visible spectrum. They have also been working on the surface modification of TiO2 as well as the biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. These studies have led to the development of versatile materials.

The main component of dye-sensitized solar cells is the photo anode. It is composed of a porous layer of titanium dioxide and a platinum counter electrode. These electrodes are covered by an iodide/triiodide electrolyte. This system is capable of sustaining five million turnovers without degradation.

In order to improve the conversion efficiency of these solar cells, a number of experiments were carried out. They included a study on the effect of different TiO2 hazes and on the pH of the dye. They also investigated the effect of the dye's absorption time on the solar cell performance. These studies showed that a longer dye absorption time was beneficial.

Another important area of study is the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. These metal-polypyridine complexes are known for their strong absorption in the visible region and long excited state lifetimes. They are also effective sensitizers for thin film electrodes. They have been successfully tested in bipyridines and have been proven to avoid aggregates.

The use of natural dyes for these dye-sensitized solar cells has also been studied. These dyes are extracted from various fruits. These dyes were then characterized by steady-state/time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. They were then tested under simulated solar light.

Metal oxides

In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), organic dye molecules are used as sensitizers, while redox electrolytes are used as donors. As a result, the dye absorbs the photons and converts them into energy. The device has low cost and high efficiency. However, there are limits to their application, due to the poor long-term stability and limited absorption spectrum.

Since the introduction of dye-sensitized solar cells, a lot of attention has been put on the performance of the devices. A number of important issues have been analyzed to improve charge generation and the open circuit voltage of these devices. One of the most important aspects is the interaction between the dye and the metal oxide. It is possible to enhance the performance of the device by introducing a metal oxide coating on the TiO2 photoanode surface. Moreover, there are new mesoporous architectures which could lead to a significant improvement in conversion efficiency of the metal oxide based photovoltaics.

A large number of studies have been conducted to examine the role of defects and mobilities on the charge generation process and the cell efficiency. This study reveals new strategies to improve the power conversion efficiency of hybrid solar cells. The results indicate that the efficiency of the device is largely dependent on the energy level position of the metal oxide. The conduction band edge shift leads to an increase in the open circuit voltage.

To investigate the effects of doping on the open circuit voltage of the ZnO-based DSSC, a model system was prepared. The doping concentration was varied using a doctor blade approach. Then, the ZnO film was calcined at different temperatures. In addition, the influence of solvent on the open circuit voltage of the device was studied. This was done through UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results indicate that the open circuit voltage of the device increases by 0.2 eV as the doping concentration increases.

Another important feature of this cell is the counter electrode, which reduces the overpotential. The counter electrode is composed of a conductive polymer. Its effect is also shown in the Poole-Frenkel plot.


Dye-sensitized solar cells are inorganic solid-state photovoltaic devices which imitate the photosynthesis process in plants. They are a viable alternative to conventional silicon solar cells. Their advantages include low cost, higher efficiency, and environmental compatibility.

Various kinds of pigments have been tested as sensitizers. Early experimental cells were sensitive to blue and UV light. Newer versions had a wider frequency response. These improvements have been accompanied by enhanced visible light absorption.

Recent highly efficient DSCs have employed a combination of dyes. This approach offers a promising way to improve the performance of DSCs. The efficiencies of these dye-sensitized solar cells have been shown to increase by 10.9%.

The photosensitizers used in these systems are natural dyes. These are easily accessible and can be sourced from plant sources. This development has been a promising move towards the use of more natural resources in the production of energy.

The dye molecules are nanometer sized. They are used to absorb light and convert it into free electrons in the TiO2 layer. They have poor red-spectrum absorption compared to silicon. But, they are very efficient in the low-frequency range of IR light. The photo-response of the cells has been extended to the near-infrared region.

One of the benefits of using co-sensitizers is that it increases the durability of the device. In addition, this type of cell can be adapted to ambient light harvesting. It can achieve a PCE of 34.5% in ambient light, a PCE that is significantly better than that of YKP-88.

In addition, the co-sensitized device exhibits a higher charge density than YKP-88. This is because the recombination rates are lower. This enables lower Jsc losses. These results are in agreement with IPCE measurements. This increased efficiency can be explained by the calculated regeneration efficiencies.

The co-sensitized solar cell has an active area of 2.8 cm2. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) is 13.5% under standard AM1.5 G solar radiation. The high efficiency is attributed to the better photoinjection of electrons. This is a result of improved efficiency and lower recombination rates.

Efficiencies of up to 13%

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are thin-film photovoltaics which are widely used in the solar energy industry. These solar cells have efficiencies up to 13% and have a high short-circuit current density. It is a third-generation solar technology that is now in production and available to the public. It is a relatively inexpensive and easy-to-manufacture photovoltaic that can satisfy the growing demand for power in indoor electronics. Compared to other solar cell technologies, DSSCs are transparent, cost-effective, and can be fabricated on a large scale.

DSSCs use organic dyes to absorb sunlight. The absorbed photons convert to electrons, which are then injected into a series of nanoparticles. The most commonly-used photoanode material is zinc oxide or titanium dioxide. The redox activity of the electrolyte affects how the dye molecules are able to convert the photons into electrons. Similarly, the structure of the metal oxides also plays a role in how the dyes are able to capture and re-inject their photogenerated electrons.

Molecularly engineered porphyrin dyes can be used to improve the light-harvesting properties of the DSSCs. The highest conversion efficiency is seen in TiO2 nanoparticle-based DSSCs. It is also possible to replace the conventional photoanode material with carbon-based materials.

As the recombination of photo-generated carriers reduces the total current, the current-conversion efficiency of DSSCs is often lower than that of conventional solar cells. The next step in the development of DSSCs is to develop low-cost and stable materials. In order to achieve higher efficiency, it is necessary to improve the stability of the device.

The performance of a DSSC depends on the quality of the photoanode and the semiconductor. Ideally, the semiconductor should be highly porous, allowing the light to be absorbed, and should match the characteristics of the sensitizers. The sensitizers should be low-cost, environmentally friendly, and broad in their absorption spectrum. In addition, the LUMO level of the photosensitizer should be higher than the conduction band edge of the semiconductor.

In order to understand the underlying mechanism of DSSCs, it is important to know how the photocathodes operate. They are composed of an organic dye which injects electrons into an array of oxide nanocrystals.

Video: Teach Yourself how to make a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell