Gallium Arsenide Wafers for Sum Frequency Generation

university wafer substrates

What Wafer Specs are Used for Sum Frequency Generation?

A postdoc in the Chemistry department was interested in utilizing a GaAs wafer for use in a sum frequency generation spectrometer.

For this application I need a GaAs wafer with 110 orientation, that is 2" in diameter, that is undoped. The thickness of the wafer is not an issue for us as the main concern is only interaction of infrared and visible lasers if the GaAs surface. That said whether or not the surfaces of the wafer are polished depends entirely on whether polishing the wafer would affect the surfaces chemically. Would you happen to have or be able to make 2 GaAs wafers that meet these specifications? If so, please let me know an expected price and estimated time it would take to deliver the wafers.

Reference #169779 for specs and pricing.

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Buy One GaAs Wafer for Your Research!

A  P.D affiliate research professor working in a chemistry department requested the following quote:

I am looking for a 110 gallium arsenide wafer. A diameter of 1 or 2" is sufficient and ideally thin ~350 um. I just need one and I am using it as a reference to generate sum frequency generation on. I did not see any other specifications in the literature.


What is the surface roughness of the Gallium Arsenide wafer?


The surface roughness is guaranteed by repetition of the chemical-mechanical-planarization (CMP) polishing process (not by any measurement, which would be destructive). For the polished side of the wafers the typical roughness (rms) value is <2 nm The CofC doesn't mention any surface roughness measurements data as the roughness is guaranteed by repetition of the chemical-mechanical-planarization (CMP) polishing process.

Reference #257441 for specs and quantity.

Gallium Arsenide to Generate a Sum-Frequency Signal

A PhD in physics requested a GaAs wafer quote for his research.

My goal is to increase reflectivity off of the GaAs wafer, for 650 nm light at an incident angle of 60 degrees, hence my mention of "optimal reflectivity". 

Using the Fresnel equation, I have found at reflectivity of about 58% for the incident light described above, S-polarized. My question then is this: would it be possible to apply a coating to the wafer to significantly increase this reflectivity for 650 nm light? 

Ideally, reflectivity of such a coating would drop after 700 nm.. c.

The point is, that three separate laserbeams need to be focused on the GaAs. One of them, the to 650nm S-polarized light at 60 degrees to the surface, needs to be reflected. The other two generate a sum-frequency signal, that should propagate in the same direction as the reflected beam.

I hope this explains the necessity of the GaAs to be highly reflective, at least at 650 nm. Please let me know what you think about possible coatings.

Please let me know how feasible my demands are; I am aware of the fact that they are terribly specific.

Reference #90867 for specs and pricing.

Industries have found Gallium Arsenide Sum Frequency Generation method to be very useful. It has made possible the generation of extremely low voltage current, which is required in some industries.

Scientists have used the following GaAs wafers for their research.

GaAs Item #7259
50.8mm Undoped SI GaAs [110] 350um SSP Res n-type >1E7, Mobil cm2/Vs 2,865-5,100, EPD/cm2 <1E5, P Flat @ <011>; S Flat @ <100>, Epi Ready, Lasermark

What is Sum Frequency Generation?

Sum Frequency Generation is a two-dimensional optical process in which the annihilation of light photons at laboratory setting where an experiment on sum frequency generation (SFG) is taking place. It showcases the process of two lasers emitting beams of different frequencies towards a sample material, resulting in the generation of a third beam of light that is the sum of the initial frequencies. This visualization captures the essence of the SFG process along with the scientific equipment involved in the experiment.multiple wavelengths is followed by generation of coherent wavelengths as the output. It was first conceived by Dr. Alexander Kornmehl in 1891. His reason for inventing this process was to find an explanation for the phenomenon of superlative optical strength enhancement at multiple input wavelengths. He succeeded in proving that the generation of coherent wavelengths at different input wavelengths occurs when a periodic Gaussian distribution is applied on the input surface. His work initiated the first coherent wavelengths using gallium arsenide.

Gallium arsenide is a metal oxide that consists of a binder and two electrons. The binder is composed of one electron and the two electrons are negatively charged. When these two binders are combined with a suitable substrate under strong acceleration, they produce a material called gallium arsenide. Gallium arsenide's greatest advantage over other similar metals is its high electrical conductivity. A Gallium arsenide substrate absorbs and dissipates a large portion of the energy coming from an electric source, thereby converting the energy into electrical energy.

This semiconductor substrate can be used in many different applications in science and industry. It has a number of advantages over substrates based on pure gallium arsenide. The main advantage of this substrate lies in its high electrical conductivity, which makes it ideal for use in communications. It also enables the generation of high frequency electromagnetic fields. The ability of this substrate to absorb and displace large amounts of energy makes it ideal for use in power generation systems. It also makes it possible to use small quantities of this substrate to generate high voltages.

The energy dissipation rate of the gallium arsenide substrate is much lower than that of a traditional semiconductor, making it a highly cost-effective method for electricity generation. Because the semiconductor substrate is made up of one electron and one positron, it is called a 'positron'. The sum of all such particles, when multiplied together, gives rise to a quantum frequency of nearly seven hundred megahertz.

Sum Frequency Generation by using the Sum Frequency Method can be implemented using gallium arsenide semiconductor devices called femtosecond chips. These chips can be fabricated using a special liquid substrate and gallium arsenide crystals in them. Gallium arsenide crystals are produced by a process called femtosecond induction. In this process, the voltage across the crystals is linearly controlled to a certain frequency. By using a special instrument called a phase-locking oscillator, the crystal's phase change is measured and the frequency of the resultant electric field is measured.

As the crystal is excited, the process described above induces an electric field which begins to resonate with the atoms of the substrate. When the input source is a low voltage power signal, the crystals will be excited at a frequency which is near the maximum frequency of the input signal. As the input signal increases, the crystals will lose their energy level. When they are returned to their original state after being stimulated, they emit energy at a frequency significantly higher than the original one. This process is repeated a number of times and the device is programmed to generate a specific output at a predetermined frequency. Thus, it is called a f modulation generator.

Due to the benefits of the Sum Frequency Generation method, many industries have found it to be very useful. It has made possible the generation of extremely low voltage current, which is required in some industries. It also has led to the development of semiconductor devices with high frequencies. Some of the benefits include: very low power wastage due to negligible loss of energy between sources, the use of a very small amount of material and low cost of manufacturing. However, while it has several advantages, it has some disadvantages as well. One of them is that the power output of the device is directly proportional to the input current.

In other words, if you produce more current than you require, you will have to consume more energy to do so. In such a scenario, there is a great risk of over consumption of resources. Other disadvantages of this method are that this method cannot generate currents of all wavelengths and it is highly inefficient in the conversion of infrared energy into audible sound. Apart from these disadvantages, this method has some unique characteristics of its own.