Silicon-on-Glass (SOG) Wafers

university wafer substrates

How Researchers Use Silicon-on-Glass (SOG) Wafers

A scientist at a small start up requested a quote for the following SOG.

"Can you supply a SOG wafer as follows?. Size: 4 inch - Si Thickness: 220 nm Orientation: 100 Resistivity: 10~20 ohm-cm Finish: Polished - Glass Thickness: 500 um Material: borofloat - Min qty: ?"

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Pls see below for the offer on Silicon epi on Sapphire Glass Wafer. <100> or <111> Orientation

Silicon on Sapphire Wafer,Size: 4 inch - Si Thickness: 220 nm+/-10nm Orientation: (100), Resistivity: >100 ohm-cm Substrate Finish: Polished on both sides - Sapphire Glass Thickness: 460+/-20 um Material: Sapphire - Min qty: 5pcs

Reference #268578 for pricing.

Silicon On Glass for Spin Coating

A Ph.d requested a quote for the following:

 I'm looking for the spin on glass (SOG) material which can be spin-coated with a thickness of micrometer (2~5um). Can I get this thickness using your product by a single spin-coating or multiple spin-coatings? and is your SOG's refractive index closed to fused silica (quartz) or HSQ?
If they got 1.5 um thick by a single spincoating, then can I get thicker one by multiple spin coating?

If you have information, please let me know. 

Reference #265115 for pricing.

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Display Applications of Silicon-on-Glass

Considering the fact that silicon on glass has become a trend, it can be said that there are a lot of possibilities in the field of display applications. Various modifications and variations can be carried out without deviating from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Exfoliation layer

Using an exfoliation method, a silicon on glass substrate can be fabricated. The resulting thin layer of silicon is highly useful for developing flexible photoelectrodes for integrable PEC cells. In addition to its usefulness in electronics, this material has also been studied as a possible material for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

Two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets have fascinating physical and chemical properties. They are obtained by a variety of methods, which may be classified as bottom-up or top-down approaches. They can be fabricated on a large scale, and are also used in numerous applications.

h-BN monolayers can be obtained from a bulk crystal via the top-down or mechanical exfoliation method. Several factors limit the yield and thickness control of this process. However, it can be used to fabricate large quantities of few-layer h-BN layers. These include the lack of high-vacuum conditions required for chemical processing of the compound.

Exfoliation methods are used for a wide range of applications. These methods can be categorized into three different groups: chemical, mechanical, and external force. Depending on the type of material to be exfoliated, these techniques can be applied on a research-lab or advanced production level.

In order to make a thin free-standing Si photoelectrode, we used a crack-assisted exfoliation method. The process involves implanting ions into the major surface of the donor wafer. The resulting stressor film was then thermally evaporated onto the graphite flake. This method was verified through detailed optical simulations.

During exfoliation, micro structural defects can be formed in the thin silicon layer that is transferred. These defects can disrupt transistor formation and operation. To overcome this problem, we developed a new technique. This technique consists of a substrate that is dipped in diluted HCl (10 wt%) solution for 5 minutes. Then, it is cooled down and rinsed in deionized water. After the dipped process, the substrate is treated with chlorine-based Ni solution and electrodeposition is carried out. During this process, PMMA is removed from the surface.

During the first repeated exfoliation, a multilayer graphene was obtained with a lateral size of approximately 300 mm. This layer has high quality. Its root mean square roughness is similar to that of the silicon substrate. This is a good indication that the LEE process is reliable and reproducible.

Barrier functionality

Developing high performance/low cost materials is a major hurdle in silicon solar cell fabrication. The development of a single-crystal silicon film on glass can enhance the display quality of displays. It is also difficult to transfer silicon films on large-area display glass substrates. The challenge is largely overcome by a new process.

ToF-SIMS analysis of treated Si-glass wafers shows that elemental profiles are preserved after thermal annealing. Although the boro-aluminosilicate glass is touted as the aforementioned, it does have trace alkali impurities.

A thin silica layer on silicon is another technique for passivation. The SiO2 concentration is about 30.5%, with a small amount of Mg and Sr. The formation of a silica sol barrier layer is achieved through anodic oxidation of silicon. The layer can be directly annealed with phosphorus after drying, or can be spun on the surface of a substrate. The silica sol is likely the best candidate for a TFT display.

Electromigration of alkaline earth elements in glass is a well-known phenomenon. Electromigration of Al can be a challenging feat because a large proportion of alkaline earth elements can diffuse into silicon during processing.

Among the most important features of the Silicon-glass bonded assembly is that it is a robust, stable and non-contaminating interface. This is despite the fact that the interface is relatively long-range wavy. This is not the case for Ca. A high electric field is set up between the surface of the glass and the silicon wafer surface, resulting in oxygen anions migrating towards silicon.

The formation of a silica sol as a barrier layer has not been thoroughly investigated. This material has the capability of producing a barrier on a TFT, but the quality of the silicon film is limited by the nonuniformity of the glass. This is especially true for polycrystalline silicon. In addition, the formation of silicon oxynitride films has posed significant challenges. These films typically contain defects and are difficult to form into devices of a high performance. Using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to fabricate a silicon-oxynitride film is an effective method, but it also has its limitations. The dangers associated with CVD include the use of dangerous silane gas.

Various modifications and variations can be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention

tee heafty, one of the most common problems facing patent applicants is a lack of novelty. A cursory perusal of the USPTO's database yields thousands of applications dating back to 1865. Having a better understanding of what constitutes novelty may help to a degree. The most challenging part is determining what constitutes novelty and what is not. Fortunately, this is a task that can be addressed by a discerning patent attorney. The following is a brief listing of key ingredients in the invention approval process. Among them is an enumerated list of responsibilities. A good patent attorney should be able to provide a comprehensive, well-informed and frank discussion of all aspects of the patenting process, from drafting, filing and prosecution to post-grant proceedings. The following items should be reviewed in descending order of importance: a) the inventor; b) the patent's subject; and c) patent-eligible business or affiliated entities. Having a good grasp of what each entity is responsible for will help to ensure a smooth and timely patent award.

A proper review of the prior art will reveal numerous opportunities for improvement. For example, it is not uncommon to find microorganisms that are only available in a lab after a lengthy screening process. The aforementioned microorganisms are oftentimes only available in specific strains, such as the genome resembling a genus or clade. The same aforementioned microorganisms also exhibit traits such as symbiotic relationships, metabolite biosynthesis, and recombination.

Display applications

Currently, there are two major types of display applications of silicon on glass: polycrystalline and amorphous silicon. Both are used in the production of thin-film transistor liquid-crystal displays. The thin-film transistors are fabricated on a glass panel using traditional integrated circuit fabrication methods.

The polycrystalline silicon film is formed by laser crystallization of silicon. It is used in all small- to medium-sized AMOLED displays. The use of poly-Si enables flat-panel displays with improved appearance and increased speed. It is also being used in mobile device displays.

The amorphous silicon film has lost its significance due to the competition from conventional crystalline silicon cells and other thin-film technologies. However, amorphous silicon has been the preferred material for the active layer in thin-film transistors. In the past, amorphous silicon was a promising contributor in the fast-growing photovoltaic market.

Thin-film transistors are widely used in large-area electronics applications. They are typically 50nm thick and form pixel circuitry in display devices. These devices range from pads to computer monitors.

Another display application of silicon on glass is the creation of barrier layer glass. This glass is thermally stable and prevents diffusion of mobile species. It is difficult to fabricate this glass through known glass-forming processes. The growth of the barrier layer is dependent on voltage and square root of time.

A new process has been developed to transfer silicon films over large panels. The process has been successfully demonstrated with two light fields and a large array of polarization conversion optical elements. This enables higher-resolution displays with smaller physical pixels and brighter displays. The high-resolution displays require a pixel density of 400-900 pixels per inch.

In order to achieve optimum crystal formation, the silicon film needs to be near-complete melt. This is a key requirement for the manufacturing of display applications of silicon on glass. This is facilitated by the application of low-temperature thermal annealing. The thermal annealing process involves heating a glass panel to a temperature of 600degC. The high temperature damages the standard glass substrates. Consequently, the display industry has sought a lower-temperature alternative.

This process is known as SOITEC. It creates a monocrystalline silicon film on quartz or glass wafers by using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

Why Use Silicon?

Silicon is used because this material vaporizes and deposits on a glass wafer, then bonds with the other glass wafer. Anodic bonding is formed when a positive (+) DC voltage is applied to the Si wafer and negative (-) is applied to the glass wafer, as Silicon and the glass wafer are squeezed together and heated. The Silicon wafer does not have electrical advantages over the glass because it is semiconductor while glass is an insulator.