Substrates for Underwater Solar Energy Research and Production

university wafer substrates

Wafers for Underwater Solar Energy


Our group is focusing on the harvesting of solar energy underwater. We are looking for the supply of photovoltaic cells having a bandgap in the range of 1.8eV to 2.3eV in order to optimize solar energy. Preferably looking for Indium Gallium Phosphide, Gallium Arsenide. We would like to know if you have a product which can suffice our need?

I am not an expert in the Solar cells division, so I may not be able to provide full information to you. I require a solar panel to power a simple module and function underwater. Size must not exceed 1 sq.m, Output Voltage around 12V, and Bandgap between 1.8eV to 2.3eV, specifically looking for GaInP/GaAs/Ge Triple Junction cells.

We would also like if we could get a quotation for same with delivery time.

We find out that for different sea water depths different solutions need to be applied. If your customer wants to operate the Solar cell module on the surface or in the depth very close to the surface, the panel with TJ cells should be used. If your customer wants to operate the Solar cell module on deeper water, the panel with DJ cells should be used.
Could you advise what depth the solar cells shall be designed for?

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UniversityWafer, Inc. Responded:

We did literature study before preparing the offer. Because the testing and the final product water depth are different, two different kinds of panels, each one designed for a different depth of water, are advised to use. For shallow water the panel with TJ cells are recommended to use and for deeper water, the panel with DJ cells are recommended to use. Our offer is valid for DJ or TJ, price is the same for both.
Please check attached the water absorption spectrums from the different sources in the literature. Each has minor differences but generally limited by the 20m for IR radiation. Besides, the band gap (1.8eV to 2.3eV which is between 540nm to ~690nm) doesn’t match conventional TJ cells. Please also check out the band gap diagram from the attached figures. Germanium junction (band gap 0,7eV) will not produce so much and may cause more losses than what it brings. So, we recommend Dual junction made of GaAs/ (Al)GaInP which is best fitting to your requirements.

Additional notes: Usually sea water absorption spectrum may not allow Germanium junction to produce enough efficiency (<1%) due to IR absorption of the water surface (only Works in the dept less than a few meters). Therefore our offer also includes DJ which can also work almost without a significant change in the efficiency similarly to TJ. Since we don't know the power consumption and current requirements or AC/DC operation etc. of the customer module to be powered by the panels we prepared a standard generic solution. Please let us know if the customer has additional requirements like inverter etc. They can be subject to separate quotes from us.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Item Qty. Description
HF91. 1 Triple junction or Dual Junction SC
for 1.8eV to 2.3 eV.
Min 10 cells, 12V output, panel size< 1sqm
Price: $


Item Qty. Description

HF91b. 1 Special Encapsulation for
underwater use. Water resistant,
Anti-Algae coating, waterproof
Electrical sockets
Price: $

Item Qty. Description
HF91c. 1 Fresnel Lens Concentrator Module
mounted on panel.
Price: $

What Substrates are Used In Underwater Solar Energy Research?

Solar energy harvesting of energy in the ocean is quite possible. The harvesting of energy from the sun's rays is known as photovoltaic, which is a process to convert solar energy into electrical energy. Solar energy harvesting of energy underwater is different from other forms because it has many advantages and the method used is different too.researching underwater solar panels

Although many people have the misconception that this type of harvesting is very difficult, in reality this method is simple. There are certain devices that help in converting energy from the sun's rays into an electrical energy. This is done by the application of mirrors and thin materials which are coated on them and this process is called energy conversion.

Energy harvesting from the sun is a complex process. There are many factors which determine the harvesting of solar energy. Harvesting of energy from the sun is a form of renewable energy and it can be used for various purposes. One of the prime reasons why harvesting of energy from the sun is important is the fact that it provides us with enormous energy supply which is endless. This energy can be used for various purposes such as the production of electric energy and oxygen. The solar energy harvesting of energy underwater is therefore very important as it provides us with unlimited energy supply.

There are many advantages of harvesting of solar energy underwater. This energy is obtained from very deep inside the ocean. For harvesting of energy there are some requirements which must be met. For instance, the temperature under water must be cold; at the same time, the temperature outside the water must also be cold. This is because the solar energy is absorbed by the water and transferred to the area where heat is needed and then converted into electrical energy. The most common and efficient harvesting of solar energy underwater is by using cables to transfer the energy.

In this process, the harvesting of solar energy is used to convert the energy into electrical energy. There are two different methods which are used for harvesting of energy from the sun. The first method involves the use of lenses; these lenses work on a principle called the concentrating gradient method. This harvesting of energy from the sun is done by focusing a large area of sunlight onto a small surface which is then illuminated. The light is then reflected away from the surface and the solar energy is collected.

In the second method for harvesting of solar energy, the surface is used as the collecting plate. As the collecting plate is made up of semiconductors, this energy is able to transfer very easily between the plates. The energy thus collected is then transformed into electrical energy. The harvesting of energy of the sun is used in various parts of our lives and is a major source of energy.

Harvesting of energy from the sun can be beneficial for several reasons. Firstly, the harvesting of solar energy can be done underwater and hence it can be used in areas where it is not feasible to harvest energy from terrestrial resources. Moreover, it is a clean and green process. Harvesting of solar energy from the sun does not damage the environment in any way. It has been estimated that harvesting of energy from solar power can result in as much as 70% less energy consumption than conventional electricity generated from fossil fuels. Further, the harvesting of solar energy also helps to keep the earth free from harmful emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and mercury.

However, harvesting of solar energy needs certain specialized equipment. These specialized devices are known as "solar panels". Harnessing of solar energy can be done through the use of solar panels. Although solar energy is available everywhere in the world, yet only a small part of it is harvested actively and regularly. This is the reason why you need a special system to harness solar energy to meet your various requirements.