Wafers for Ring Resonators Research/Production

university wafer substrates

What Applications use Ring Resonators?

The ring resonator can be used to create a narrow-bandwidth filter, which allows only certain frequencies of radiation to pass through while blockading others. This property makes ring resonators useful for applications such as telecommunications and optical computing.

Fused Silica Used in Ring Resonator Research

A university scientist requested a quote for the following:

"I am trying to get quotes for glass (SiO2) wafers for our project in ring resonator designing. Our lab is trying to do resonator fabrication with novel material on top of Si(x)N(y) on Silica. Could it be possible for any of you to give me quotes on the prices of silica wafers? Also, do you have fused silica wafers with Si3N4 already deposited on them? If so, I would like to get quotes for that as well.

I think 1.5 um - 2 um thickness of glass wafer will suffice. I was wondering what are the standard sizes available for wafer or can you customize them? We will need 50-100." 

Please reference #261472 for pricing.

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How does a Ring Resonator Enhance Telecommunications?

A ring resonator is a device that can store and release energy in a particular frequency, or range of frequencies. When used in telecommunications, ring resonators can be used to create signals with very specific characteristics, which can be desirable for certain applications. For example, a ring resonator can be used to create a signal that is very clean and free of distortion, or to create a signal with a very narrow range of frequencies (known as "narrowband"). Ring resonators are also highly efficient, meaning that they require relatively little power to operate. All of these properties make ring resonators an attractive option for enhancing telecommunications signals.

How does a Ring Resonator Enhance Optical Computing?

A ring resonator is an optical device that can be used to enhance the performance of optical computing. It consists of a ring-shaped structure that can guide light in a circular path. The resonant properties of the ring allow it to selectively filter out certain wavelengths of light, which can improve the efficiency of optical computations. In addition, the ring geometry can also be used to focus and collimate light, which can further improve the computational performance.

What SOI Spec Is Used for Ring Resonator Research?

A researcher asked us to quote the following:

"Is there any available SOI wafer with 80 nm device layer and 2/3um BOX in future? And any difference between SOI wafers labelled with ID 3381 <100> and ID 3523 without orientation? Is possible to fabricate photonic devices using 3523? Can it be easily diced/cleaved into small (1cm by 1cm) samples as it shows no crystal orientation? Actually, I want to buy 2251 (70nm device layer/2um BOX). Is it working fine for photonic devices, e.g., waveguides, ring resonators? The same questions for 2251?"

Reference #253512

What Is a Ring Resonator?

A ring resonator is a semiconductor or optical device that can be made of a series of waveguides. These what is a ring resonatorwaveguides are each coupled to an input and an output with an optical loop. This type of device is commonly used for optical communication. It is also used in many other fields, such as ultrasound and X-ray imaging.

Split-ring resonators are a ring resonator

Split-ring resonators are ring resonators with alternating magnetic and electric responses. These resonators are fabricated by patterned copper layers on a thin PTFE substrate. Split-ring resonators have an extremely low operating wavelength because the separation of the rings is so small. This enables the miniaturization of resonators.

Split-ring resonators can be used in waveguides for subwavelength applications. They can also be used as filters for subwavelength systems. Moreover, they are suitable for the production of miniaturized antennas and RF lenses.

The resonant frequency of a single-split ring resonator is 1.87 GHz. The resultant current vectors of a two-split resonator are shown in Figure 7. The simulated spectrum is almost identical to the measured value. This is because the electric field is polarized along the gap and the magnetic field is perpendicular to the x-axis.

Split-ring resonators have large capacitance. This capacitance is inversely proportional to the resonant frequency, allowing them to achieve high resonant frequencies. The SRR has a relatively large resonant wavelength compared to its dimension, which makes it suitable for RF applications. The SRR also has low radiative losses and negative effective permeability at frequencies close to the resonant frequency.

Split-ring resonators are useful in biosensors. They have high sensitivity to biomolecules. Their resonant frequencies shift proportionally to the load of the biomolecule. These devices may be made with either a metallic surface or a hydrogel.

Split-ring resonators are characterized by a rectangular shape. The resonant frequency is 3.28 GHz. This frequency is also identified as the electric resonant frequency. The resonant frequency of a split-ring resonator is dependent on its orientation. This can be done by changing the polarization of the electric field or changing the propagation vector.

Split-ring resonators have been used in many applications, including radar and antenna applications. Originally, Altran designers and engineers utilized them for reducing antenna gain by absorbing incident radiation. They are usually made of metallic patterns.

TE and TM modes

To obtain the TE and TM modes, the microring resonator is overcoupled at 300 nm. A simulation of the Q-factor versus the coupling region gap is shown in Fig. 1(a). For microring resonances, the Q-factor is 155 pm/lres, where lres is the ring radius.

TE mode response is lowest in the bulk mode, with sensitivity peaking at 1310 nm. As a result, the bus waveguide and ring waveguide output power are 0.391 dB. Both TE and TM modes exhibit similar spectral response.

The theoretical sensitivity analysis was performed using a finite element method to simulate the effective refractive index of fundamental TE and TM modes. Using this technique, the simulations of the TE and TM modes were performed for a number of different scenarios. The results of the experiment were in line with the theoretical results.

The TE and TM modes of ring resonance are different types of resonators. To achieve TE, the ring circumference must be an integer multiple of the wavelength of the incident light. Moreover, the mode number must be a positive integer.

A number of important properties of the TE and TM modes of ring-resonators can be exploited for various applications. These include label-free photonic sensors. Additionally, these resonators can be used in lab-on-chip devices.

In this paper, we present the theoretical and experimental analysis of the TE and TM modes of a ring-resonator. The TE mode was found to have the largest measurement range, while the TM mode had the highest sensitivity. Our analysis showed that TE and TM modes can be used simultaneously for the same application.

These spectra also show the sensitivity of the sensor to the refractive index change. The results obtained are in line with the experimental and theoretical results for both weak and strong coupling. These results indicate that the TE and TM modes of ring resonators are sensitive to the refractive index of the ethanol solution.

The TE and TM modes of ring-resonators are complementary, with equal amounts of light being emitted by the system. In both cases, light from a point source is guided by a waveguide. This waveguide is coupled to the ring resonator with another waveguide.


Ring resonators are a promising class of biological sensors. They work by sensing target molecules or bioparticles by detecting changes in their refractive indices in the surrounding medium. As these molecules or bioparticles change the refractive index, they change the behavior of light.

The ring resonator is composed of two parallel rings with an interface length of 400 nm. Each ring has a 3.1 mm radius. When the two rings interact with each other, the ring resonator generates enhanced light intensity near its surface. The enhanced light intensity is proportional to the Q-factor of the ring resonator. This enhanced light intensity can be simulated using a device called Lumerical FDTD, which simulates the coupling of a straight waveguide and ring component at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

The ring resonator has several properties. One is that it has a high quality factor. This quality factor is a measure of the resonator's transmission properties. Its intrinsic single-mode nature also allows it to achieve high spectral selectivity. There are two types of ring resonators, each with its own characteristics.

Another characteristic of the present embodiments is its ability to reduce vertical losses in practical devices. This property results in a reduction of vertical losses, and in some cases, a significant increase in Q-factor. One such embodiment is shown in FIG. 3. The Q-factor is obtained by solving the Maxwell's equations in the time domain and calculating the optimum parameters. During this process, the height of the structure and duty cycle are varied until they achieve a maximum Q value.

The quality factor Q is plotted against the shift Ds of the first ring in FIG. 5. This property is necessary to achieve a large refractive index contrast. The first ring in the ring structure has a height of 1.12*a, a radius of the center disc is 1.62*a, and e = 0.85*a. These properties make it an attractive candidate for future integrated photonic devices.

The ring resonator's coupling capacity depends on the length of the optical coupling. This length determines the effective length of the ring resonator's curve. If the coupling length is greater than this value, the coupling difficulty decreases. The length of the coupling is also dependent on the refractive index.


Ring resonators are a popular device in many fields, from radar to wireless communications. The principle of ring resonators is simple: pulsed excitation of a ring resonator causes the fundamental mode of the input port to be shifted. The shifted frequency, called the FWHM, is then multiplied by a Fourier transform, producing the wavelength response of the device.

What is an Optic Resonator?

If you're wondering what is an optical resonator, then you've come to the right place. Here, we'll take a look at the Fabry-Perot resonator, Planar-mirror resonator, Microring resonator, and NANF resonator.

Fabry-Perot resonator

The Fabry-Pérot resonator is a type of optical cavity that uses two parallel reflecting surfaces. When these surfaces are in resonance, optical waves can pass through. This interferometer was first developed in 1899 by Charles Fabry and Alfred Perot.

Fabry-Perot resonsators are fundamental optical devices with many applications. For example, they can be used to measure the length and frequency of light, or to filter out specific spatial modes. In the bidirectional formulation, the Beam Envelopes Interface (BEE) technique is often used to compute the transmission and reflection properties of macroscopic Fabry-Perot resotors.

In a Fabry-Perot reverberator, the intensity of light passing through it is modulated by current. The result is a Doppler broadened absorption spectrum. The Fabry-Perot resoctor has a high Q factor.

The magnonic Fabry-Perot reverberator is another type of resonator that works over a wide frequency range. It has almost zero transmission loss when operating at allowed frequencies. Another interesting feature of magnonic resonators is their ability to achieve active modulation of the output signal by magnetic gating.

This resonator is an excellent instrument for measuring the resistivity of thin, highly conductive films on highly conductive substrates. In addition, the material structure studied is one that is commonly encountered in the development of thin-film solar cells. The cavity used in the experiment uses a semiconfocal Fabry-Perot cavity with a wavelength of 3 mm. The sample is mounted onto the flat reflector of the cavity. The film resistivity is then measured based on the relationship between the film's resistivity and the cavity's quality factor Q, an easily measured parameter.

Nanowire lasers that use the Fabry-Perot principle are highly efficient. Nanowire lasers can achieve over 95% efficiency. The photonic crystal supports the Fabry-Perot resonator despite their small wire diameter.

Planar-mirror resonator

Planar-mirror resonators are optical devices that make use of mirrors to convert light into electrical current. They are made up of two flat mirrors separated by a distance d and a lens of focal length f located within the resonator. The lens's focal length and angle of incidence are fixed, and the ray's round-trip through the resonator is determined by a ray-transfer matrix.

Moreover, the resonator is capable of forming optical cavities in liquid droplets or transparent dielectric spheres. For example, researchers Richard K. Chang and his colleagues have shown how to produce lasing with microdroplets of ethanol that were twenty to forty microns in diameter and doped with rhodamine 6G dye.

The thickness of the active region of the planar-mirror resonator determines the spatial distribution of light. The wider the active region, the higher the frequency and total luminescence. In addition, a wider active region increases the number of potential activators.

The simplest type of optical cavity is the plane-parallel cavity, which consists of two flat mirrors that are parallel to each other. While this type of cavity is commonly used in semiconductor lasers, it is rarely used in large-scale lasers. The mirrors must be aligned within a few seconds to reduce beam spillout.

The DBRs of the present invention include a phosphor-based active region 50 and a front reflector 30. The mirrors are grown on a substrate 25. The active region 50 is disposed between the front and back reflectors. The back reflector 60 is made of the same material.

Microring resonator

Microring optical resonators can be used for a wide range of optical applications, including lasers and fiber optics. The resonators can be designed to operate at either a constant or varying PF. Microring resonators can be characterized using a wide range of wavelengths and radii.

The radii of microring resonators can range from 30 mm to 90 mm. This allows for analysis of their performance in TE and TM modes. The size of the ring determines the necessary waveguide dimensions, including the height of the ribs, top width, and sidewall angle.

Microring resonators are important components in high-index contrast photonic platforms. They can enable on-chip field enhancement, spectral filtering, and fast modulation of optical signals. Microring resonators have been successfully demonstrated in a number of platforms over the past decade, including silicon nitride.

Microring optical resonators are particularly useful for high-frequency ultrasound detection. In these systems, the resonator is coupled to a straight optical waveguide. As a result, acoustic waves impinging on the ring waveguide induce a strain in its cross section, which alters the effective refractive index of the optical waves propagating along the ring. A high Q-factor resonator enhances this acoustic strain response. Further applications for this technology include the design of multi-element ultrasonic arrays, which are capable of providing high-frequency imaging.

A microring optical resonator with a quadrature point at 800 kHz has a Q-factor of 3.5 x 107. These values are consistent with previous studies. The transmission spectrum is plotted with a tunable laser at the quadrature point, which is the red dot in Fig. 1d. The wavelength is the optimal frequency at which pressure is detectable.

Microring optical resonators are highly efficient for acoustic and optical applications. The chiral EP has been suggested as a robust implementation for directional absorbers, sensors and amplifiers. Previous studies have analyzed transmission and reflection spectra. The chiral EP structure is a unique surface, and has the potential to be used for many other applications, including optical sensors, optical amplifiers, and directional absorbers.

The sensitivity of the microring optical resonator is significantly improved by the use of a high-Q-factor (107) capillary-based optical ring resonator. Non-contact detection of air-coupled ultrasound is demonstrated with noise equivalent pressures as low as 215 mPa/Hz at 50 kHz and 41 mPa/Hz at 800 kHz. The capillary-based ring resonator also showed significant improvement in the detection bandwidth.

NANF resonator

A NANF optical resonator is a device that can amplify an electromagnetic wave. Its resonant frequencies are called eigenfrequencies. An eigenmode is a specific electric field distribution in a system that is associated with an eigenfrequency. The eigenmodes of an electromagnetic field are calculated using a wave equation.

NANF optical resonators are versatile, enabling the fabrication of various types of devices. These devices can be manufactured with a variety of geometries, ranging from simple disc, ring, and spherical cavity configurations to more complicated, tubular, and microbubble cavity structures. Each type of resonator has its own distinct advantages.

The NANF optical resonator works by rotating a Gaussian beam inside a cavity. This alters the polarization state of the light. This is possible because the cavity's round trip time, a function of the frequency separation between the resonance lines, is short. For instance, a light pulse incident on the R port of a 50/50 coupler, will split into clockwise and counterclockwise pulses that travel in opposite directions. If there is no phase modulation, this will result in constructive interference at the reflection port R.

In order to use NANF optical resonators, a complex optical and mechanical setup is required to align light on the edge of the cavity. However, researchers in Spain have demonstrated a simpler free-space coupling setup. To accomplish this, an efficient pumping scheme is used to focus a laser into the microsphere. This pumping scheme is able to excite Nd ions, which are fluorescent, and thus produce WGMs.

A NANF optical resonator is a simple and affordable solution for high-power laser applications. It consists of a ring of mirrors that have antireflection coatings. The mirrors are positioned on the ring's axis at an angle that compensates for astigmatism.

Different resonators differ in their geometrical properties. The cavity geometry and distance between mirrors influence the resonant frequencies and eigenmodes. The geometry must be selected so that the beam remains stable and does not grow in size due to multiple reflections.