Substrates for Condensed Matter Research

university wafer substrates

Wafers Used in Condensed Matter Research

I am a French researcher and I would be interested in receiving a quote (including the delivery fees for France, the address is indicated below): - five 100 mm-diameter p++ Si(100) wafers, boron doped, single side polished with a resistivity between 0.001-0.005 ohm cm, thickness < 500 µm - five 100 mm-diameter n++ Si(100) wafers, phosphorus doped, single side polished with a resistivity between 0.001-0.005 ohm cm, thickness < 500 µm Please observe the desired characteristics.
Ok for p++ with the requested characteristics but you don't have in stock n++ Si(100) with resistivity in the range 0.001-0.005 ohm cm. Please let me know if you can sell n++Si(100) wafers?

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Reference #267932 for pricing or more info.

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Video: Condensed Matter Physics


Scientists Chose the Follwoing Wafers for Their Condensed Matter Research

The following substrates have been used for condensed matter researcher or in condensed matter departments.

Typical Wafer Query:
1. First, I would like to tell you that our research group is mainly focused on studying the substrate's influence on the growth of different materials. Therefore, the substrates we use are 5 x 10 mm rectangular cuts (they do not necessarily have to be perfect rectangles, they can be irregular pieces). Therefore, I would like to know if you sell "scraps" of the wafers in your catalog (thinking that those scraps could have lower prices than whole wafers).
2. Could you recommend an epitaxy-ready GaAs substrate for the growth of nanowires in a sputtering system? Do you have these substrates in scrap mode?
3. We intend to manufacture diodes using n-type and p-type doped silicon substrates. We need the substrate with an n doping, and we will deposit a p-type material atop and vice versa. Could you tell me which are the cheapest silicon substrates that you sell for this purpose?
4. Through sputtering, our group makes silicon and germanium quantum dots by gluing small wafer pieces onto SiO2 and Si3N4 targets. Do you have pieces of non-doping silicon and germanium wafers for this purpose?
5. I see you have 10x10mm fused silica substrates, and the price for 200 units is $ per unit. Do you have those 200 units in stock to supply us?
6. I also see that you have sapphire substrates, ID: 1306 at $ a unit. 7. Do you have 25 ID: 2313 silicon wafers and 25 ID: 2218 wafers available?

Reference #258160 for pricing or if you have questions.

Government Researcher Request

I am looking for some Si wafers. I see you have 3" mechanical grade wafers and (100) wafers in stock right now. But I did not see any 3" (111) wafers in stock. Is this something you usually carry? If so, what is the lead time for a batch of 25x? Could I get a quote for 25x Si mech grade 3" wafers, 25x Si <100> n-type, prime wafers, and (if applicable) 25x Si (111) n- prime wafers.

"Thanks for the info, the self quoting tool is great and I will use that."

Item #2881 Thermal Oxide Coated Silicon Wafers
76.2mm N P <100> 1-10 380um SSP Prime

Reference #267239 for more info.

What Is Condensed Matter?

The study of condensed matter is one of the many branches of physics. It deals with the physical properties of matter at both the microscopic and macroscopic levels. It includes the study of the different liquid and solid phases of matter, which result from the interactions between atoms and their electromagnetic forces.

what is condensed matter

Hard and soft condensed matter

While hard and soft condensed matter are both low-dimensional solids, there is a fundamental difference between them. While these two materials exhibit similar characteristics, they differ in their crystalline structure and atomic structures. These two materials have unique properties relating to their electronic band structures and transport properties.

In quantum physics, there are two types of condensed matter. Hard matter is characterized by its inseparability from its surroundings, while soft matter is characterized by its ability to interact with light. Both types can exhibit a wide variety of properties. Some are anisotropic, while others are strongly in equilibrium. This difference leads to some interesting phenomena. Soft matter can exhibit similar properties to hard matter, which makes it an interesting study subject.

A key difference between hard and soft matter is in the way they interact with each other. Hard condensed matter materials typically exhibit crystalline lattices. Soft condensed matter materials, on the other hand, exhibit complex soft interactions at various length scales. This makes them difficult to model or predict. The subtle interplay of interactions and thermal fluctuations leads to complex and emergent behaviour, such as self-assembly, spontaneous pattern formation, and a sensitive response to external stimuli.

Hard and soft matter share many common properties, though their fundamental theories are different. Hard matter has highly ordered atoms, and researchers can predict their properties based on their average molecular arrangement. On the other hand, soft matter has heterogeneous structures and a hierarchical structure. In addition, soft matter materials are composed of aggregates of molecules that are held together by weak intermolecular interactions.

Topological phase transitions

Topological phase transitions are a relatively new category of quantum critical phenomena. Unlike the classical Landau phase transition, topological phase transitions show divergence in time and length. This makes them amenable to scaling methods. Moreover, a topological transition is easily distinguishable from a non-topological phase transition because of the diverging length and time of its transitions.

Topological phase transitions occur in a region of matter where quantum bits can be fractionated and non-trivial boundary states exist. These boundary states are known to act as perfect conducting channels, and they can conduct electricity without generating heat, making them useful for electronic devices.

Topological phase transitions in condensed materials are extremely exotic and are attracting considerable attention in condensed matter and materials science. These materials combine ferroelectricity and topology and are a rich environment for emergent phenomena. These theories are important in a broad range of applications. This article will discuss the concept of a universal polar topological phase and the role of phase-field simulations in understanding topological phase transitions in condensed matter.

Topological phase transitions in condensed materials are a great way to learn more about how different materials work. For instance, atoms may change their structure during quantum transitions, and their behavior is dependent on the quantum of the system. This process is called quantum Hall effect.

X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a method used to determine the structure of substances. The method is widely used in biomedical research. The information it provides about the structure of a protein can help researchers better understand the functions of the protein. It has also been applied to other systems, such as enzymes and protein-ligand interactions.

Crystals are solid materials, which are arranged in an atomically-perfect arrangement. When X-rays pass through the crystal, they reflect off of the individual atoms. Different crystal structures have different active reflecting planes. Consequently, the spacing of the spots depends on the crystal structure.

X-ray crystallography of condense matter uses electron diffraction of X-rays to determine the structure of crystalline materials. This technique has been used to study the crystal structure of many proteins, including DNA, RNA, and protein. The structure of a protein can be determined if it exists in a well-ordered crystal with a specific orientation. X-ray crystallography can also be used to determine a protein's structure by studying its electron density.

X-ray crystallography has helped scientists to determine the structure of a protein, which is very important for determining how the body works. In the early days of X-ray crystallography, the structure of a protein was a controversial issue. In 1934, J. D. Bernal postulated that biological macromolecules possessed a regular structure, and proposed the use of X-ray crystallography to study the structure of proteins. Dorothy Crowfoot, who worked with Bernal, recorded the first X-ray diffraction image of a crystallized protein. In this experiment, she exposed pepsin crystals to a mother liquor solution. She then tried to dry the crystals so that they resembled mineral crystals.

Neutron diffraction

Neutron diffraction in condensate matter is a technique used to examine the behavior of atoms, molecules, and materials. Neutrons scatter from their tiny atomic nuclei, but unlike electrons, their scattering power is not reduced with increasing scattering angle. Consequently, neutron diffraction experiments often produce strong peaks at high angles. These data can be collected at low temperatures, allowing scientists to acquire high resolution information from neutron diffraction.

Neutron diffraction reveals structural information about atoms and their magnetic moments. This technique is useful in a number of applications. Single-crystal neutron diffraction is used to study materials, while powder diffraction can be applied to liquids and biological samples. Neutron diffraction also provides information about engineering components and membranes.

Neutron diffraction is an extremely useful experiment. It allows scientists to see how the electrons in a solid react with neighboring atoms. Neutrons are nearly as heavy as protons and carry a magnetic moment. Thermal neutrons have a low velocity and interact with nuclei and electrons in partially filled shells. This interaction is isotropic, but microscopic magnetization is not.

Neutron diffraction in condensate matter can also be used to study the structure of molecules. For example, the structure of 3He requires two separate (110) type reflections. The diffraction pattern is often sharp, but it is drowned by the inelastic background. In some cases, different isotope ratios can improve the scattering contrast of certain elements, but this is expensive and not widely available.


Superconductivity is the ability of a material to carry current. This property is often associated with neutron stars. The Hubbard model predicts the s-wave superconductivity of neutron stars and is used to study them. This model relates the superconducting properties to baryon number symmetry.

Superconductors can have very exotic properties. The Meissner effect, first discovered in 1933, is one such property. When the Fermi surface of a superconductor varies, magnetic fields can penetrate it only to a limited depth. This depth, known as l, can be measured. In a thermodynamic sense, the ground state of superconductors is inhomogeneous, but this doesn't matter in terms of their history. The magnetic field in an ideal conductor doesn't change over time. It is determined by the initial conditions.

Another example of superconductivity in condensed matter is the occurrence of odd-frequency pairing, which occurs when the two magnetic fields interact. This pairing mechanism was first predicted in the context of superfluid 3He, and it was later confirmed by experimental data in ferromagnetic/conventional superconductor junctions. It was derived from the breakdown of spin-space symmetry in the material. Odd-frequency pairing also occurs at the interface of normal metals and superconductors. This pairing is possible because translational symmetry is important in the superconducting state.

Superconductivity in organic materials is characterized by a nonuniform order parameter (Maki parameter) and a strong Pauli limit. While the properties of such materials differ from those of other materials, they show the typical superconducting behavior of Pauli-limited materials.

Challenges of synthesis

Condensed matter synthesis is a key area of condensed matter physics and is being driven by advances in instrumentation. These new instruments allow scientists to manipulate atoms and molecules at unprecedented length scales. Their applications range from nanofabrication of electronic devices to probing the secrets of superconductivity and protein folding. These changes in instrumentation are far-reaching, and are opening doors to a wide range of previously inaccessible research fields.

One of the main goals of condensed matter synthesis is to create new materials that have correlated electron behavior. This requires new synthesis techniques that can produce high-quality materials. In addition, a significant amount of research is being directed toward materials in single crystals. However, the challenges are not without hope.

The synthesis of new materials is often complex and difficult. It involves a variety of growth methods, including chemical vapor deposition and conventional arc melting. A wide variety of materials are synthesized using this methodology. The development of advanced semiconductor materials is the key to the next generation of electronics.

Several research groups at UT have actively pursued the problem of condensed matter. The research programs include research on novel materials, surface science, and biophysics. It also includes the study of multicellular aggregates and the application of network theory to biological systems.