P-N Junction for Research & Production

university wafer substrates

Silicon Wafers Used for P-N Junction Research

What silicon wafers can be used for P N Junction research and production?

Scientist Request:

I have a quick question about the solar wafers vs the silicon wafers; when solar wafer is designated as n-type wafer or p-type, being Solar wafer does it imply that a p-n junction is already grown or is it bulk p or n type wafer, and how’s that different from silicon wafer? I am looking to start order with small qty: ~25 wafer

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Item   Qty.   Description
GX82j. 10   n/p junction Solar cell silicon wafers, per SEMI Prime, DSP 4"Ø×300±25µm,
                     p-type Si:B[100]±0.5°, Nc=(3.05-1.50)E15/cm³, Ro=(5-10)Ohmcm,
                     With Diffused Phosphorus layer ~1 µm depth, of Nc=(3-10)E18/cm³ {0.005-0.012)Ohmcm}
                     SEMI Flats (two),
                     Sealed in Empak or equivalent cassette.

Reference #265226 for pricing

Our silicon wafers work great p-n junction semiconductors. Our silicon wafers are used in the fabrication of these high-efficiency low-power device.

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What Silicon Wafers are Used for P-N Junction Research?

Scientist requests:

I am looking for pn junction wafers for my project and I saw some solar wafers listed on University Wafer’s website (Solar 150mm (universitywafer.com)). Do you happen to have more information about these wafers?

We are looking for n-on-p type Si and GaAs wafers. The size of the wafer is flexible. We will only need a small amount (<5 wafers). Let me know if you need additional information.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Item Material Orient. Diam. Thick (μm) Pol Resistivity
D063 n-type Si:P [100] ±1° 4" 280 DSP FZ 1-5
PV FZ Reference wafers SEMI Prime, 2Flats, TTV<6μm, Bow<5μm, Lifetime >13,934μs
K660 n-type Si:P [100] ±1° 4" 280 DSP FZ 1-5
SEMI Prime, 2Flats, PV reference wafers, MCC Lifetime>2,000μs, Empak cst

Q) Is it possible that you can cut (dice) it into smaller size for us?

A) Yes, we can dice the wafers or laser cut them. We need to know the dimensions and quantity needed.

P-N Junction Research

Boosting the efficiency of GeSe solar cells by low-temperature treatment of pn junction

SC Liu, Z Li, J Wu, X Zhang, M Feng, DJ Xue… - Science China …, 2021 - Springer
Germanium monoselenide (GeSe) is an emerging promising photovoltaic absorber material
due to its attractive optoelectronic properties as well as non-toxic and earth-abundant

What is a PN Junction Diode?

The p-n junction is a semiconductor that is positive and negative. The n-type electrons are paired. The p-n junction is the smallest conductive semiconductor. The n-type electrons are in charge-neutral. This makes it possible to create high-efficiency devices with a low-power consumption. A positive polarity enables a low-power device. The other type of n-type transistor is a refractory metal.


P-N Junction Explained

The p-n junction is a semiconductor boundary that contains electrons and holes in excess. It is a single crystal and the interface between two types of semiconductor. There are four types of p-n junctions. Here are some of the most common. All have an underlying physical cause. The p-n junctions are the simplest. However, there are some others that are more complex. The n-type semiconductors are more complicated.

The first type is called the p-n junction. The negative terminal is a semiconductor with holes. The holes attract electrons while the electrons flow away from it. The cathode and the anode terminal are connected to one another by the anode. The positive and negative polarity in a p-n junction are opposite in nature. The n-type semiconductor has a broader depletion region, which prevents a current from flowing through it.

In addition, there are different kinds of p-n junctions. In the former, electrons from one polarity diffuse toward the other, while holes from the opposite side migrate toward the other. This means that the p-n junction is a good place to study electrochemistry. This area is characterized by an extremely high electrical resistance, resulting from its high degree of dielectric remanence. A negative polarity is also known as a refractory zone.

The p-n junction is a semiconductor. It functions by allowing electrons to diffuse from the n-side to the p-side. The positive polarity leads to increased current in the n-type region. In contrast, a negative polarity results in an increased voltage barrier. The n-side of the p-n junction is negative. A positively polarity is a higher-polarity.

A p-n junction is a semiconductor that has two types of atoms. The n-type atoms have electrons and hole atoms. In a p-n junction, a positive ion increases on one side, while the opposite polarity has a negative polarity. The p-n junction has a negative polarity. This ion is the most common one.

The n-type atoms in a p-n junction are negatively charged. The p-n junction, as its name suggests, is a reversible semiconductor. The p-n junction can also be referred to as a 'p-n junction'. The positive ion is applied to the n-type region. The reverse polarity causes the negatively charged ion to be attracted to the n-type atoms.

The n-type ion is the most common semiconductor in a p-n junction. It is also the most common one. It is not always easy to understand, but it is important to know how it works. The p-n junction is a junction that has two major components. A negative ion attracts a negative one, while the other n-type ion attracts a hole.

Unlike the n-type, p-n junctions produce a very small amount of current. The negative ion is induced by a negative ion. The current flows through a p-n junction. The p-n semiconductor is the most commonly used semiconductor. A p-n semiconductor is a semiconductor that is used in electronics. Although it is widely used, it is also one of the most common forms of transistor.

The p-n junction is a fundamental component of semiconductors. Its intrinsic concentration is n, while its negative ion is p. The reverse ion is n. The depletion region is a conductive element. In the p-n junction, the electric field is reversed. In the n-type, the positive ion is connected to the negative ion.

The n-type semiconductor is connected to the positive terminal of the battery. The negative carrier is connected to the negative side. The p-n semiconductor is connected to the n-side. A p-n junction can be referred to as a n-side conductor, but does not conduct current. A n-side conducts electricity. The p-n junction is an asymmetrical conducting two-terminal device.

What Are the Modes of Operation of a PN Junction Diode?

PN junction diodes operate in two modes, namely, forward bias and reverse bias. The former is characterized by a slowly increasing forward current while the latter increases dramatically with the increase in external voltage. On the forward bias curve, the p-type is connected to the negative terminal and the n-type is connected to the positive terminal. The reverse bias produces a sharply increasing forward current.

A PN junction diode can be operated in one or more of these modes. Each mode will have a different effect onwide depletion region the voltage. In the photoconductive mode, for example, a voltage is applied to the n-type side of the diode. In this mode, a photocurrent is generated in the p-side, and a negative current is created on the n-side. This leads to a concentration gradient between the two sides of the junction, resulting in a current.

In the reverse-bias mode, electrons spread away from the PN junction. This results in the emission of the minority carriers, which cause the PN junction to become open. Consequently, a large number of positively charged and negatively charged ions are produced on the N side of the junction. This creates a net positive and negative electric field in the region near the metaphysical junction.

The reverse-bias mode of a PN junction diode has a higher breakdown voltage than forward-bias mode. This mode is characterized by a small reverse-bias current. In a reverse-bias scenario, the current is zero when no voltage is applied. In the reverse-bias mode, the reverse-bias current is produced.

On the p-side, the electric field is induced in the opposite direction. In the forward-bias mode, the electric field pushes the electron from the p-side of the junction to the n-side. This is referred to as the on-state voltage region. During the reverse-bias mode, there is no voltage applied to the n-side.

The forward-bias mode, on the other hand, allows current to pass through a PN junction diode. This voltage is known as the "forward bias voltage" and is created by a voltage source. The n-side is connected to the p-side, while the p-side is connected to the n-side. The n-side is connected to a positive potential while the p-side is connected to an inductively-biased source.

A PN junction diode operates in two distinct modes: on-state and reverse-state. The former is characterized by a gradual reduction in voltage; the latter is characterized by a gradual increase in current. Further, the reverse-bias characteristic is a definite state of the diode. Further, the forward-bias characteristic is a graph between voltage and current.

The on-state voltage drop is the most common mode of operation. The reverse-state voltage drop is the other mode. The current on the n-side is low. This is called the on-state voltage-drop mode. The reverse-state current is extremely high at this stage. The n-side is the same as the p-side. This diagram illustrates the three modes of the PN junction.

During the on-state voltage drop, the N-type diode is connected to the positive terminal while the P-type is connected to the negative terminal. Both types of diodes produce positive and negative ions. As the voltage drops, the current increases. The on-state voltage drop is also known as the on-state voltage. While the N-type diode has a negative V-type, it will also produce a more stable on-state voltage.

When the p-type region is flooded with electrons, the negative-side hole region is depleted. During the reverse-bias state, the negative-side charge carrier will repel the p-type charge carrier. The reverse-bias voltage will result in a narrow depletion zone. A small amount of current will flow in the depletion-zone, while the majority-type end of the diode will be fully charged.

Solar Cell Wafers with PN Silicon Junction

A researcher asked for the following:

I would like to know the prices and minimum quantity. I’m setting up a new students lab and need a pn junction wafer. I don’t have experience in these kind of orders so any help is appreciated.

Can you please send me more information about these wafers? Thickness of the diffused layer, etc.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

The the most popular entry wafer for Solar Cell construction is with a diffused layer of opposite conductivity type, with created p/n junction. Thickness of the diffused layer 1-10um.

Item Qty. Description
GX82h. 1/2 Silicon wafers, per SEMI Prime, P/E 4"Ø×525±25µm,
p-type Si:B[100], Ro=(10-20)Ohmcm,
One-side-polished, back-side Alkaline etched,
With Diffused Phosphorus layer ~500nm thick, Nc~5E19/cm³, Ro~0.001 Ohmcm,
SEMI Flats (two),
Sealed in Empak or equivalent cassette.

GX82i. 10/17/25 Silicon wafers with n/p junction, per SEMI Prime, P/P 4" (100.0±0.5mm)Ø×300±25µm,
p-type Si:B[100]±0.5°, Ro=(5-10)Ohmcm,
TTV<10µm, Bow<40µm, Warp<40µm,
Diffused phosphorus layer: n-type, ~500nm, Nc~5E19/cm³, Ro~0.001 Ohmcm,
SEMI Flats (two),
Sealed in Empak or equivalent cassette.

GX82j. 10 Solar cell silicon wafers, per SEMI Prime, P/P 4"Ø×300±25µm,
p-type Si:B[100]±0.5°, Nc=(3.05-1.50)E15/cm³, Ro=(5-10)Ohmcm,
With Diffused Phosphorus layer ~1 µm depth, of Nc=(3-10)E18/cm³ {0.005-0.012)Ohmcm}
SEMI Flats (two),
Sealed in Empak or equivalent cassette.

GX82k. 25 Silicon wafers, per SEMI Prime, Diff.+Si(P/E) 4" (100.0±0.5mm)Ø×525±15µm,
FZ p-type Si:B[100]±0.5°, Ro > 10,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000µs,
TTV<10µm, Bow<40µm, Warp<40µm,
One-side-polished, back-side etched, SEMI Flat (one),
With Diffused Phosphorus layer ~0.5µm depth, of ~110 Ohm/square (best efforts basis),
Sealed in Empak or equivalent cassette.

What is a Diffused Layer?

According to the IUPAC, this is a region near the electrode where concentrations are different from those of the bulk solution. Diffusion of ions in the air is one example of a diffused layer. Here are some examples of diffusion layers and their definitions. Read on to learn more! And don't forget to check out our article on ion size diffusion.