What is the Youngs Modulus of Substrates

university wafer substrates

Fused Silica Young's Modulus

A material science engineer requested a quote for the following:

I believe we purchased some fused silica samples from you a while ago. I was wondering if you had fused silica samples but available at different thicknesses? 

Thickness minimum of 5 mm. Diameter could be upto 25 mm. If its a square/rectangular, the length/width could be upto 25 mm. 

The use purpose is for calibration of indenter for nano-indentation. Fused quartz is the industry standard for this purpose. 

One last thing: could you send me the material spec sheet. Looking for elastic modulus/youngs modulus specifically.

Reference # 278853 for specs and pricing.

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Sapphire Wafer Young Modulus

A Nanomechanical & Surface Characterization Engineer requested help witht he following:

Looking for sapphire single crystal. Elastic modulus information if available will be very useful. Small discs 2 cm diameter or above preferred. Purity 99% or more, tilt 3° or less preferred. Thickness > 1 mm preferred. Please let me know what options we have. This is for using as a mechanical testing standard. 

Is this single crystal sapphire?
Why does the orientation say C-A, is it C or A?
Any knowledge on the elastic modulus?
Also, is this polished? I need one side polished at least if possible with roughness information.
What does wafer grade-Mechanical imply?
4 inch diameter is a little too big for my work. My previous experience with cutting sapphire has been not so great. If I purchase this crystal would you be able to cut it into 4 clean quadrants for me?

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted and Answered:

Dia Ori Thck Pol Remarks Grade
4'' C-A 2.0deg 1000+/-25um DSP No Flat Mech

  1. Yes,It is single crystal sapphire
  2. It means C-plane off 2deg towards A-plane
  3. The elastic modulus: C11=496, C12=164, C13=115, C33=498, C44=148
  4. Both sides polished,surface roughenss less than 0.5nm
  5. Wafer grade-Mechanical
  6. Can cut it into 4 clean quadrants for you with additional cost

Reference #277425 for specs and pricing.

Sapphire: CTE, Density, Hardness, Grain Size, Water Absorption

An engineering technician requested a qutoe for the following:

I would like to know if you can send me a spec sheet for Sapphire Wafers? The Sapphire ID is 2562 – Size: 100mm, Orient: C-M plane, Polish: DSP, Thickness: 650µm. I am looking for the following information: Full material content (is it 100% Sapphire) CTE Density Hardness Grain Size Water Absorption Gas Permeability Flexural Strength Elastic Modulus Poisson’s Ratio Thermal Conductivity Volume Resistivity Dielectric Constant Dielectric Loss Any data on these wafers is greatly appreciated!

Reference #253326 for specs and pricing.

Young Modulus of Thick Silicon Wafers

A corporate test & simulation engineer required the following quote:

I would be interested in thick wafers from 1.5 mm and more. Have you got this type of wafers in your stock? 

There are the specs we need:

The other specs (dopant, orientation, …) are not important for us for the moment.

Concerning the quantity, we would need from few units to 10 wafers.

Moreover, I would be grateful if you have some documentation about the evolution of Young’s Modulus regarding the orientation of the wafer or the influence of dopant on the mechanical behavior of the wafer you propose.

Reference #263842 for specs and pricing.

Young's Modulus of SOI Wafers to Fabricate PZT Actuator

A Ph.D. student and researcher requested the following quote:

We have studied on PZT actuator. We want to know is there any SOI wafer available and prepare to purchase with the PZT 5(A, H, or J series) for our research? Details are like below: Device and handle layer: <100> young's modulus: 135GPa device layer thickness: 20 um oxide between layers: 2 um thermal oxide handle layer: > 500 um polish: single side polish (SSP) Device layer resistance= 0.001~0.005 Ohm.cm handle layer: not doped PZT prefer type: PZT-5(H, J, or A) coated 0.5 um ~ 1 um wafer size: 4 inch device layer: n-type Thank you for your time. We look forward to hearing from you at your earliest convenience.

PZT actuator

Reference #259871 for specs and pricing.

Young's Modulus Difference Between (100) and (111) Oriented Silicon Wafers

A doctoral student requested the following quote:

We need the following thin silicon wafers: 100um+/-1um 6" thin Silicon, DSP, 25um+/-1um 6" thin Silicon DSP

We are planning to use these deformable mirrors. As flat and smooth as possible is nice.

Doping is not needed. For reporting g purposes it’s good to know the crystal structure although I’ve assumed a Young’s modulus value that is pretty much the same for, example Si 111 vs Si 100?

UniversityWafer, Inc. Replied:

In silicon, the Young's modulus along the <100> direction is typically lower than along the <111> direction. For example:

  • In the <100> direction, the Young's modulus of silicon is approximately 130 GPa.
  • In the <111> direction, it is higher, around 187.5 GPa.

These values can slightly vary based on the purity and specific characteristics of the silicon crystal, but the general trend of <111> being stiffer than <100> remains consistent. When it comes to things like semiconductor tech and MEMS, the way silicon wafers bend and stretch - their anisotropy - is super important because it can seriously impact how well devices work.

Silicon Young's Modulus

The Young's Modulus of silicon, a key measure of its elasticity and stiffness, is typically around 130 to 188 GigaPascals (GPa). This value can vary depending on the crystal orientation of the silicon. For example, in the <100> direction, it's about 130 GPa, while in the <111> direction, it's higher, around 188 GPa. This property is crucial in applications like semiconductor manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), where the mechanical characteristics of silicon significantly impact performance.

What is Young's Modulus?

Young's modulus is like a measure of how stretchy a material is. Imagine you have a rubber band. When you pull on it, it stretches. Young's modulus tells you how much force you need to stretch something like a rubber band or a piece of metal.

It's a bit like a game: for every bit of stretch (that's the strain), how much force (that's the stress) do you need? If the number for Young's modulus is high, it means you need a lot of force to stretch it, like pulling a really tough rubber band. If the number is low, it's easier to stretch, like a soft, stretchy rubber band.

So, in simple terms, Young's modulus helps us understand how stretchy or stiff a material is when you pull on it.

How do I find the Youngs Modulus of a Substrate?

To find the Young's modulus of a substrate, you typically follow these steps:

  1. Understand Young's Modulus: Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of Here is an illustration that represents Young's Modulus. It features a stress-strain curve on a graph, highlighting the concepts related to Young's Modulus in an educational context.Diagramthe stiffness of a material. It's defined as the ratio of stress (force per unit area) to strain (deformation) within the limit of proportionality in a material's elastic region.

  2. Prepare the Sample: Cut the substrate into a suitable size for testing. The dimensions of the sample should be accurately measured, as they are essential for calculating the strain.

  3. Choose a Testing Method: There are several methods to measure Young's modulus, such as tensile testing, compression testing, and bending tests. The choice depends on the substrate material and the available equipment.

    • Tensile Test: This is the most common method. The substrate is stretched until it deforms, and the stress and strain are measured.
    • Compression Test: This is similar to the tensile test but the substrate is compressed.
    • Bending Test: This involves applying a load at the center of the substrate while it is supported at both ends.
  4. Measure Stress and Strain:

    • Stress (): Calculate the stress applied to the substrate. Stress is the force applied per unit area, calculated as , where is the force applied and is the cross-sectional area of the sample.
    • Strain (): Calculate the strain in the substrate. Strain is the deformation (change in length) per unit length, calculated as , where Δ is the change in length and is the original length.
  5. Calculate Young's Modulus: Young's modulus (E) is calculated as . Plot the stress-strain curve from your measurements and find the slope of the linear portion of the curve, which represents the Young's modulus.

  6. Consider Material Behavior: Some materials may not have a linear elastic region, or they might have anisotropic properties (different properties in different directions). This should be taken into account when interpreting the results.

  7. Repeat and Average: To ensure accuracy, repeat the test multiple times and average the results.

  8. Use Standardized Equipment and Procedures: For accurate and comparable results, use standardized testing equipment and follow international standards like ASTM or ISO.

Remember, the accuracy of Young's modulus depends on precise measurement of dimensions, applied forces, and the resulting deformations. It's also important to understand the material properties and behavior of the substrate you are testing.

Young's modulus, Poisson Ratio, and Fracture Toughness of Fused Silica

A mechanical engineer Researching the ultra-precision machining technology and equipment for high-end optical elements requested our help with the following:

I'm really interested with the fused silica wafers in your company Here are some details on it Material Fused silica Product ID 971.

I would like to ask a few questions

  1. The company that manufactured it
  2. The surface roughness and flatness of the wafers

I am studying the mechanical quality of fused silica with indentation and scratching experiments. My requirement is that the material has very uniform mechanical performance (Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, and fracture toughness) and good surface quality (surface roughness Rq<1nm, only few subsurface damages).

Reference #233916 for specs and pricing.

Young's Modulus of Ultra-Thin Foldable Smart Glass

A principle investigator researching foldable glass for smart phones requested help with the following:

We are very intereting in the ultra-thin glass for foldable smart glass. So I want to kown more about your ultra-thin glass. Can you provide some information about this glass for us, like physical property (maximum tolerable temperature, conductivity, hardness, youngs modulus, etc). If you have a video showing the softness of the glass for folding, that will be better. 

Reference #253326 for specs and pricing.

Modulus of BK7 Glass Substrate for Use in High-Pressure Chamber

A PhD candidate researching photonics requested the followng quote.

I am looking for a BK7 glass substrate for use in High pressure chamber. Since it is for use as a window in high pressure chamber it would have to satisy AD 2000-Merkblatt for our use in our lab. The main requirements from AD 2000-Merkblatt are: material: Borosilicate (BK7) Coefficient of linear expansion : a20 / 300 = (3.30 - + 0.05)x 10-6 K-1 ( according to DIN 52 328 ) medium thermal conductivity A = 1.3 W / mK between 20 and 200 ° C mean specific heat capacity c = 910 J / kg K between 20 and 200 ° C Density at 20 ° C P = 2.23 g / cm3 modulus of elasticity E = 64 kN / mm2 Poisson's number ( Poisson's ratio) v = 0.2 Transformation temperature = 530 ° C according to DIN 52 324 At operating temperature : 300 ° C If you have such a BK7 glass , kindly let me know. Kindly also specify the thickness of such glass you have in stock. 

The size would be 1 inch diameter, the finish would be polished upto lambda/2 wavafront distortion. The quantity is still something we are currently deciding. For now you can take that number as 10. Thickness of the glass can be 2 cm or more.

Kindly note: the most important thing is that you should be specifying in quotation that the borosilicate glass provided satisfies the main requirements from AD 2000-Merkblatt or atleast there should be some certification that the borosilicate glass can be used as a window in a chamber that can be operated upto 100 bar.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

It's okay to fabricate using BK7. But we are not a laboratory, so we do not have the certification that the borosilicate glass can be used as a window in a chamber that can be operated up to 100 bar. The quote is as below:

Client quote no.   quote no. Outer Diameter Thickness Surface Finish Brand /Grade Remark
255313 U01-W1-T-201021-1 1'' 2cm DSP BK7 lambda/2 wavafront distortion

Reference #255313 for specs and pricing.

Young's Modulus of Arsenic Doped Silicon Wafers

A university material scientist requested the following quote and specs.

We order 150 wafers. Order number is  AA0A6A7B7E2B. We want to know the young modulus of the wafer (Silicon wafers 50.8mm N-type Arsenic (As) doped 280um SSP.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Replied:

The Young's modulus of silicon wafers, including those doped with arsenic, can vary based on several factors such as the doping concentration, crystal orientation, and processing methods. However, for a general reference, the Young's modulus of single-crystal silicon is typically in the range of 130 to 188 GPa (Gigapascals).

For arsenic-doped silicon wafers, the specific Young's modulus might slightly differ from pure silicon due to the influence of the dopant. The thickness of the wafer (like your specified 280 micrometers) doesn't directly affect the Young's modulus, as it is an intrinsic material property. However, the thickness can influence the bending stiffness and other mechanical properties of the wafer.

If you require a precise value for arsenic-doped silicon wafers, you would typically refer to material data sheets provided by the manufacturer or conduct specific mechanical testing under controlled conditions. Keep in mind that the actual value might also depend on the doping level and the crystallographic orientation of the silicon wafer.

Reference #AA0A6A7B7E2B for specs and quantity.

What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon Carbide Substrates?

A PhD researcher requested the following:

I wanted to inquire about the price and possibility to buy a low quantity of SiC wafers in a short timeframe. Can you sent me pricing and structural information (young's moduli etc.)?

The quantity would be about 10-20 SiC wafers, for reference; what would be the minimum quantity? Please send me quotes of both 200 and 300 mm wafers. I don’t require specs for now.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Following the requirements,Pls see below for the offer on 200mm SiC Wafer

8’’ SiC Specification_N-type_8-4H-N

Material : High Purity Single Crystal Silicon Carbide,Research grade
Polytype : Single-Crystal 4H
Orientation : <0001> Off-axis 4 +/-0.5 deg toward <11-20>
Primary Flat : Semi Notch @ <11-20> +/-5 deg
Diameter : 200.0 +/- 0.5 mm
Thickness : 500 +/- 25 um
TTV : </= 35 um
WARP : </= 60 um
Si-face Surface & Roughness : CMP Epi-ready polish,Ra<0.5nm
C-face Surface & Roughness : Optical polish,Ra<1.0nm
Dopant : Nitrogen (N-Doped)
Conduction Type : N-type
Resistivity : 0.013 ~ 0.028 Ohm.cm
Micropipe Density : </= 10 micropipes/cm2
Edge Exclusion : </= 5mm
Laser Marking : C-face
Package : Clean room,Single wafer cassette vacuum sealed

 Reference #269802  for specs and pricing.

Is Elastic Modulus and Young's Modulus the same?

Yes, elastic modulus and Young's modulus are essentially the same thing. Both terms refer to a material property that measures its stiffness, or its ability to resist deformation under load. In technical terms, Young's modulus (often denoted as E) is the ratio of tensile stress (force per unit area) to tensile strain (deformation in the direction of the force) in the linear portion of the stress-strain curve for a material. It's a fundamental concept in the field of materials science and engineering, particularly when assessing the mechanical properties of materials like metals, polymers, and ceramics.