What are Germanium Wafers Used For?

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Germanium Wafer Uses

Our research clients use Ge Substrates for many purposes. Clients have used our 50.8mm Undoped Germanium wafers that are Double Side Polished as a dichroic mirror for Visible and Infrared light.

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Dichroic mirrors and beam splitters are optical thin-film products that reflect, transmit, separate, or combine specific wavelengths (colors) and polarization components. Germanium substrates are often used for this purpose.

dichroic mirrors and beam splitters are used in:

  • digital cameras
  • mobile phones
  • projectors
  • other devices.

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Germanium Wafers for Sale

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Germanium wafers for dichroic mirrors

 

What Are Germanium Wafers Used For

Engineers at the University of Utah have developed a new method of cutting thin wafers with the chemical element germanium, and a patent has been filed for this. Bamberg compared the method of mass production to an egg-cutter, but the new way of cutting solar cell wafers, known as wire electrodischarge processing (WEDM), wastes less germanium and produces more of the wafers by cutting even the thinnest of them, with less waste and cracks. A new method that uses multiple parallel charged electric wires to cut gGermanium waves. [Sources: 5]

Although the new method makes germanium-based solar cells more efficient than silicon-based solar cells, Bamberg said, they could not be used as much as they used to be because they were too thin for use in a variety of applications such as solar panels, solar photovoltaics and solar thermal energy. [Sources: 5]

Moreover, the silicon-germanium market is too small for large players to work on the technology that could produce wafers and the devices. Instead, he said, it would be necessary to invest in developing its own technologies to gain large market shares. [Sources: 8]

There is growing interest in the use of silicon germanium in SiaGe alloys, which are used as materials for microelectronics and optoelectronic devices. There is increasing interest in identifying new technologies to increase semiconductor material production, such as the use of silicon germanium as a high-performance material for photovoltaics, and there is also increasing interest in using silicon and germanium for semiconductors in the automotive industry and for medical devices. [Sources: 0, 4, 8]

Silicon-germanium technology (SiGe technology) has been available for several years, but is only used in niche applications. The technology to combine germ and silicon materials to produce silicon-g germanium alloys has so far only been available for niche applications, and silicon and gGermanium technologies (SiGe technologies) are used in a range of applications, including photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices, as well as medical devices. [Sources: 8]

GaN - SiC substrates are mainly used for power semiconductors, automotive electronics and GaN / SiC substrate is mainly used in semiconductor and automotive electronics devices. GaAs materials, partially insulated gallium arsenide (gGermanium) and gGermanium - gSi, are mainly used in electronic devices, mainly in photovoltaics and optoelectronics, as well as in medical devices and medical applications. HF Front - End (PA) HF and HF - Frontend PA, Ga as Si is used, but Ga Since materials are mainly used in optical devices (e.g. in high-performance and low-energy optics). [Sources: 3]

If silicon is the most commonly used material, silicon wafers are called "wafers" because the crystal material is specified as silicon wafers - gGermanium - silicon (Si - wafers). If silicon is used, which is one of the three most common semiconductor materials, or silicon is indicated as Si but no crystal materials, this is called a "wafer." If silicon is a material most commonly used in electronic devices such as semiconductors and electronic systems, and no crystals of this material are specified, the silicon wafer refers to a cotton swab. [Sources: 3]

In this case, a germanium wafer can be embedded with silicon or a single crystalline wafer having an epitaxial layer of g germanium forming the outermost surface of it. The entire surface contains a layer of silicon, gGermanium and some other biomolecules, such as boron dioxide (BOD). The g germanium dissolves and the biomolescules remain on the surface that was originally uncoated. [Sources: 1, 6]

Germanium wafers are heated to the end and then the heat source is switched off until the alloy of the film is finished. Germanium wafers are heated in the presence of arsenic vapor diffusing from the heated polycrystalline g-germanium. The advantage is that the same heater that should be used to alloy the gold base layer with one side g Germania can be used to alloy the collector electrodes with the opposite side gGermania. This can be achieved by positioning the g Germanyia wafer in its usual form on a strip heater. [Sources: 2]

Place a clean g of germanium waffle in the oven to make it easier to keep it copper-free and bedridden, and then load it into an oven. [Sources: 2]

The wafers are also implanted with ions, etched and photolithographically patterned, which is not necessary for solar cells. In the first demonstration of their technique, the researchers used a one-atom-thick strip of graphene that they had sampled on a germanium wafer. Germanium - boron - co - doped substrate, but it was etched with a heavily doped substrate and a plasma - doped substrate with germ and borson, and a substrate dosed with both, in addition to a high dose of doped boron. [Sources: 7, 9, 10]

Germanium wafers were prepared by providing them with the outermost surface buffer layer, and the surface roughness of the polished germanium wafer was measured in relation to the effective value in the same way as in Example 1. As shown in Table 1, the polish was used for polishing, but the warp bow had the advantage of indicating that the germanium-doped silicon was hardly inclined to the wafer consisting of monocrystalline ingots. [Sources: 6, 10]

 

 

Sources:

[0]: https://patents.justia.com/patent/6833195

[1]: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195062

[2]: http://www.google.com/patents/US3116184

[3]: https://www.utmel.com/blog/categories/semiconductor/analysis-of-semiconductor-wafers

[4]: http://www.google.si/patents/US6833195

[5]: https://www.reliableplant.com/Read/13425/slicing-solar-power-costs-with-new-wafer-cutting-method

[6]: https://patents.google.com/patent/EP3176810A1/en

[7]: https://phys.org/news/2016-09-chip-method-limited-wafer-space.html

[8]: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-silicon-germanium-materials--devices-market-focus-on-material-type-source-substrate--epitaxial-wafer-device-type-wireless-radio-fot--end-user-telecommunication-consumer-electronics-automotive---analysis--fo-300648925.html

[9]: https://virginiasemi.wordpress.com/2017/10/10/what-is-a-silicon-wafer-used-for/

[10]: https://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-solid-state-circuit-technologies/germanium-doped-czochralski-silicon