Electrical Grade Germanium Wafers

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Germanium Applications

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A Germanium wafer is referred to as a photovoltaic wafer, a wafer-type substrate, a wafer mask, or a photovoltaic wafer-type substrate. The Germanium commonly used in the production of photovoltaic cells is the main reason as to why a Germanium wafer is able to be used in making the thin, paper-like layer that's used in order to produce photovoltaic cells for residential homes today. As you'll shortly discover, this paper-like layer is very important to the functioning of the photovoltaic cells that utilize this material.

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Now let's examine a few of the many germanium wafer applications. There are numerous applications where germanium is utilized in order to significantly increase the efficacy of the semiconductors that they're employed on. One of these applications is on the level of the electrical resistance that is encountered when electrical current is conducted through a conductive medium. In many instances, this type of resistivity is extremely high, which means that a germanium wafer based upon a certain semiconductor may have a significant impact on the electrical resistivity levels of the device in question. This means that there's a real need for germanium wafers in applications that need to handle large amounts of resistivity, such as in things like photovoltaic cell production.

Another major place where germanium wafers find their way into the picture is in the downstream applications of solid-state devices. These downstream applications include things such as solid-state relays, which require the use of a very responsive control gate. In the case of a relay to an electric motor, the gate is supposed to have an extremely fast response time in order to allow the electric motor to get itself up to full speed before it must stop. In the case of solid-state relays, the semiconductor used on the wafer or substrate must have a high enough transfer factor that it can allow the electric field that is induced on the wafer to have a high enough strength to actually be able to prevent the flow of electricity along the path that it's supposed to follow. In both of these cases, the wafer becomes a highly responsive object.

It should be noted that this isn't the only application for germanium wafers. In fact, one of the most common uses for them is as an electrical insulator. This is because they have a high electrical resistance to electricity compared to most other materials. In many cases, this is combined with some sort of surface coatings to increase their resistance even further. When this is done, you end up with a very effective insulator that has excellent thermal conductivity properties as well. They make great insulators when used with a variety of different power supplies, such as those that are used in laptop computers.

Apart from insulating equipment and electronic devices, another common use for them is in downstream applications. As noted earlier, they're primarily used as conductors for telecommunications cables. These are particularly used in conjunction with copper wiring in order to create stronger connections at a lower cost. Because they're so durable and can easily tolerate high levels of RF signal, they can also be used for this purpose in telephone and computer networking systems.

Because of their excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, these are often used for cooling systems inside electronic devices. This is mostly because they're much thinner than most of the other semiconductor materials that are used for cooling off the devices. They are also highly flexible, so that they can easily be placed and positioned on the device's surface. The best part is that you won't have to use any vacuum cleaners to get them to do their job because they are highly airtight. Also, because of their insulating properties, you won't have to worry about experiencing heat dissipation problems with these devices.

One of the most popular uses for them is in creating wafers for integrated circuits. Most integrated circuits require a certain level of wafer heat flux for good conductivity and compatibility. However, since these wafers are made out of a semiconductor material, they can't bear the intense heat that's required for the purpose of conducting electricity properly. As a result, integrated circuits that have a large number of exposed wafers tend to suffer from shorts and meltdowns. But since they're covered with a layer of germanium, there's little or no risk associated with their use in thermal diodes.

The only real disadvantage of using germanium in making electrical and thermal wafers is that their price is a bit higher than that of ordinary silicon wafers. In addition, they're also a bit thicker. But if you're looking to save a few bucks when you're buying a wafer, then it wouldn't be a bad idea to purchase them in bulk. This way, you'll be able to get them at a significantly lower price. But even if you opt to buy in bulk, don't expect to get them for dirt cheap. These devices are generally quite expensive due to their elaborate construction and unique properties.



Germanium Substrates

We have both electrical grade and optical grade germanium wafers in stock. Sizes range from < 10mm square to 150mm.

Below are just some of the germanium wafers that we have in stock. If you don't see what you need please email use your spec for pricing and delivery.

Item Dia (mm) Typ/Dop Ori Res ohm-cm Thk (μm) Pol
2477 50.8 N/Sb (100) 0.01-0.02 500 SSP
2478 50.8 Undoped (100) >50 500 SSP
2479 50.8 Undoped (100) >50 500 DSP
2480 50.8 N/Sb (110) 0.35-0.4 500 SSP
2481 50.8 Undoped (111) >50 500 SSP
2482 50.8 P/Ga (100) 1-10 500 SSP
2575 50.8 P/B (100) 0.01-0.1 500 SSP
1927 100mm P/Ga <100> 6° towards <111> ± 0.5° 0.01-0.05 175 SSP
1928 150mm P/Ga <100> 6° towards <111> ± 0.5° Epi ready 0.008-0.