Superconducting Qubits on Silicon Wafers for Research

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Superconducting Qubits on Silicon

Researchers are saving money by applying conventional Silicon Wafers for Quantum Computing to send data using light.

Recently a researcher purchased the following silicon wafer spec for their qubit research.

Silicon Wafer Item #2018 - 50.8mm Undoped Float Zone <100> >10,000 ohm-cm 280um SSP Prime Grade SSP also available. ref 251774

Why use silicon wafers?

Silicon can hold onto special electron spin-orbit interactions that can be manipulated using only electricity. The interaction last longer in silicon than other materials, even though they are difficult to control.

 

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Qubit Research Based on Silicon Wafers

Currently Intel’s Quantum research on transistor-free chips rely on relatively inexpensive silicon wafers.

Traditional computers use 0 and 1 respectively. Quantum computers can use both at the same time by spinning the silicon qubits.

Intel scientist Jim Clarke claims that "silicon qubits have the potential to operate at “ever so slightly higher temperatures” than superconducting qubits. “What that means is you could probably put integrated circuits closer to the qubit plane. These will basically bring control electronics closer,” he says. Besides helping the devices scale even faster, silicon quibits could accelerate the miniaturization of machines that typically require their own rooms.

What Are Superconducting Qubits Silicon?

A team at Princeton University in the US has shown that two components of quantum computing, known as silicon spin qubits, can interact in ways that are not possible in space - according to a new study on a conventional silicon chip. The team has shown that silicon spins (at the top of the boxes) can communicate with quantum bits located at a considerable distance from the computer chip. The discovery of superconducting bits brings to light the possibility of improving the world of silicon quantum computers, with the potential to use these "spin-qubit" silicon-spin qubits for better communication. [Sources: 5, 6, 7]

In 2018, the team showed in Nature that silicon spin qubits can exchange information with photons, and in 2018 in Nature that they can exchange information between photons. [Sources: 7]

This is of crucial importance for the further development of quantum technology, as it bodes well for future applications in quantum computing, quantum computers and quantum information processing. [Sources: 6]

Quantum computers made from silicon quabits may be less error-prone than other systems when it comes to building computers with thousands or millions of qubits, says Simon Devitt of Macquarie University in Sydney. This could eventually allow the creation of a quantum computer with a million bits of data that can simulate simple chemical reactions, he says. Intel has advocated the development of silicon quantum dots based on tiny CMOS, an alternative to traditional quantum systems such as quantum computers, but there are some major scientific leaps to be made along the way, including the search for a superconductor that would act as a perfect conductor for quantum information processing and quantum computer systems. However, to fully achieve this, the major hurdles that have hindered the commercial development and commercialisation of a silicon-based quantum system must first be overcome, says devitt, and that means overcoming a number of technical hurdles as well as technical challenges. [Sources: 0, 3, 9]

Superconducting qubits are promising candidates for the construction of quantum computers, and the various physical implementations of the quabits listed above show that they are capable of meeting many of the challenges inherent in quantum processors on this basis. As for spin qubits, their properties could be the key to scaling quantum computer systems to the estimated million qubits ultimately needed for production systems. [Sources: 1, 13]

QuTech investigates the high-temperature operation of spin qubits in a superconducting qubit in the laboratory of the University of California, San Diego, USA. QuTech studied the highest temperature operations of spins and Qu bits in a superlow-performing superconductor-free supercomputer with the help of the National Science Foundation (NSF) of the US Department of Energy and the US Army Research Laboratory (USARL) in collaboration with researchers from Stanford University's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and in collaboration with scientists from MIT and Harvard University, as well as a number of other institutions. [Sources: 4, 11]

Intel can operate high-temperature spin qubits that operate in a superconducting qubit using microwave pulses that control and control the spin of a single electron in silicon. Intel also has the highest temperature operations of spins and Qu bits, which function as microwave pulse - controlled spin - single - electron silicon in superconductors - free supercomputer. [Sources: 10, 12]

spin qubits that potentially take advantage of existing manufacturing techniques and existing semiconductor components that work in silicon. Compared to a superconducting qubit, the spin - a single electron spin Qu bit - operates at a much higher temperature than a normal qubit. Spin Qu bits with high-temperature operation of spin and Qu bits in a silicon - free supercomputer, compared to superconductors - only supercomputers with low temperatures and low power consumption. Spins and quits at higher temperatures than an existing Qu bit and potentially taking advantage of existing manufacturing and techniques present in semiconductors and components in silicon. Comparison of a spin or Qu bit with a high-temperature operation of spins and qubits in an Intel Supercomputing Center. [Sources: 10]

We must wait to see if this new way of defining qubits really unlocks the potential of silicon-based quantum computers, Devitt said. Many researchers believe that silicon-based qubit chips are the future of quantum computing in the long term. These devices have the supposed advantage of being cheaper to manufacture than a quantum computer made of silicon, and silicon is already a popular material for computer technology. Perhaps in the near future we will see a day when a "quantum computer" sends silicon chips and transistors to the grave, but for now we will only see what we have with Toomey and his colleagues at the Intel Supercomputing Center and the University of California, Berkeley. [Sources: 0, 2, 6, 8]

An alternative architecture is called spin qubits, which work on silicon and could help overcome the scientific hurdles that have led quantum computing from research to reality. It requires spin - qubit - operated, silicon - as spin, or 'spin - on - silicon' - and it is the first step towards overcoming the research and reality that has brought it from scientific hurdle to research and then into reality as a real application in the world. [Sources: 4]

 

 

Sources:

[0]: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2146503-this-qubit-redesign-may-make-it-easier-to-make-quantum-computers/

[1]: https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/research/quantum-computing.html

[2]: https://gizmodo.com/scientists-link-silicon-qubits-over-relatively-huge-d-1840663815

[3]: https://www.hpcwire.com/2020/08/19/intel-connects-the-quantum-dots-in-accelerating-quantum-computing-effort/

[4]: https://datacenternews.asia/story/intel-sees-promise-silicon-spin-qubits-quantum-computing

[5]: https://www.outlookindia.com/newsscroll/silicon-quantum-bits-establish-longdistance-relationship/1694418

[6]: https://analyticsindiamag.com/how-this-breakthrough-makes-silicon-based-qubit-chips-future-quantum-computing/

[7]: https://eepower.com/news/silicon-spin-quantum-bits-may-have-advantages-over-superconducting-qubits/

[8]: https://www.autodesk.com/products/eagle/blog/future-computing-quantum-qubits/

[9]: https://www.sciencealert.com/this-superconductor-material-could-be-the-silicon-of-quantum-computers

[10]: https://www.infoworld.com/article/3574488/what-is-quantum-computing-solutions-to-impossible-problems.html

[11]: https://www.electronicsmedia.info/2018/02/15/intel-choice-quantum-computing-silicon-spin-qubits-superconducting-qubits/

[12]: https://www.hitechauthority.com/whats-quantum-computing-options-to-not-possible-issues/

[13]: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2019/0288176.html