Germanium (Ge) Wafers for Research & Production

university wafer substrates

Electrical Grade Germanium Specifications

Below is just one wafer spec that we carry. Please let us know if you can use, or if you need another spec.

Material: VGF Ge Single Crystal Wafer
Grade: Prime, Epi-Ready
Doping: Semi-Conducting, P tyoe, Ga Doped
Diameter: 100.0+0.4
Orientation: (100)+0.5 Angle: N/A
Primary Flat: <110>+2 Length: 32+2
Secondary Flat: None Length: N/A
Carrier Conc: (0-5~4)E17*
Resistivity: </=0.25
Mobility: N/A
EPD (Average): </=500
Thickness: 550+25
Bow: N/A Warp: N/A
Particle Count: N/A
Surface Finish: Side 1 : Polished Side 2: Etched
LaserMark: None
Other Req: *Deviates from your specifications.
Packaging: ePAK - Wafer fastened by a spider in an 
individual tray and then 
sealed with N2 in a moisture-stopping metallic foil bag.
Packing done in a class 100 clean room.

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Key Germanium Terms

  • germanium substrates
  • ge substrates
  • germanium wafers
  • microelectronics technologies
  • ge layer
  • ready germanium
  • experimental annealing



Germanium Substrates In Stock
2 inch Germanium Wafer

  • 5x5x0.5mm P/Ga (111) SSP <1 ohm-cm
  • 50.8mm N/Sb (100) SSP <1 ohm-cm
  • 50.8mm Undoped (100) DSP >50 ohm-cm
  • 50.8mm P (100) <1 ohm-cm SSP
  • 10x5x0.5mm Undoped (110) SSP >50 ohm-cm
  • 100mm N (100) SSP < 0.4 ohm-cm
  • 150mm and 200mm Available - Please contact us
  • GeOI - aslo available

Buy Your Germanium Wafers Online!

Save today buy online. Buy as few as one wafer. If you don't see the specs that you want below, then please send us your specs.

ID Diam Type Dopant Orien Res (Ohm-cm) Thick (um) Polish
2477 50.8mm N Sb <100> 0.01-0.1 500um SSP
2478 50.8mm Undoped Undoped <100> >50 500um SSP
2481 50.8mm Undoped Undoped <111> >50 500um SSP
2482 50.8mm P Ga <100> 1--10 500um SSP
2575 50.8mm P Ga <100> 0.01-0.1 500um SSP
3474 50.8mm N Sb <100> 0.001-0.01 490um DSP
3458 50.8mm P Ga <111> 0.005-0.01 475um SSP
3524 50.8mm N Sb <100> 0.001-0.01 490um SSP
1927 100mm P Ga <100> 0.01-0.05 175um SSP

What are Germanium Substrates for Thin-Film Devices?

Germanium substrates are available in a variety of crystalline and monocrystalline forms, allowing researchers to fabricate thin-film devices. They are suitable for both epitaxial growth and layer transfer. Epi-ready germanium substrates are precisely "off-cut" and epi-cleaned to provide a clean, growth-surface-free growth medium. The manufacturing process is monitored with statistical process control, and the wafers are visually inspected by a trained operator.

What is Germanium Monocrystalline Structure?

A new method is disclosed for depositing monocrystalline germanium on monocrystalline silicon. It avoids the need to form an intermediate layer with a concentration gradient. This method results in a high-quality monocrystalline germanium substrate. It is suitable for high-frequency applications such as semiconductor devices. Its monocrystalline structure facilitates the growth of nanoscale germanium layers. Here is a description of the process used to form monocrystalline germanium layers.

To grow III-V multijunction solar cells, Ge substrates are used. Spalling problems of GaAs are eliminated when using Ge substrates. Controlled spalling aligns the growth orientation and the available cleavage system. Ge spalls largely flatly, but this process produces defects. In addition to defects, it results in arrest lines, linear height perturbations perpendicular to the spalling direction. These defects are micrometers deep and hundreds of nanometers wide.

The image shows the lateral size of the sub-grains and their thickness on the SiO2 support. The pyramidal hillock is a defect in the MIC-Ge pseudo-substrate extending to the GaAs layer. Both images show the structure of monocrystalline germanium substrates. One example of such an example is shown below. This technology is not widely available and requires a specialized knowledge of Germanium.

The first step in manufacturing such high-quality devices is obtaining the monocrystalline structure of germanium. The epitaxial layer is formed using a radio-frequency plasma process. This process is called heteroepitaxial growth. Afterwards, it is followed by direct growth of germanium crystals on the wafers. This method has the advantage of being low-temperature. It can also produce highly crystallized films.

Germanium Easy to Etch

To make porous germanium, we use imidazolium ionic liquids (IL). These are greener alternatives to HF and HCl. The rate of pore formation depends on several factors, including substrate surface roughness, etching current density, and IL viscosity. Varying these parameters allows us to vary electropolishing rates and achieve various surface structures. For example, in some cases, we can increase IL viscosity, reduce the concentration of H2O2, or etch down to 10 mM.

Ge wafers were patterned using either method and were then placed in a solution of 25 mg/ml silane-PEG-biotin. The excess silane solution was washed away with dimethyl sulfoxide. The wafer substrate was then immersed in deionized water containing 0.35% hydrogen peroxide to strip the Ge. Finally, the substrates were dried by blowing dry with nitrogen and stored in a 4degC refrigerator.

The IL is more viscous than the solution used to etch germanium. The viscousness of the IL reduces the rate of the dissolution of the germanium dioxide surface layer. As a result, pores formed on the surface of the germanium substrate. The number of pores increased with increasing IL density and the number of defects. A thin film of passivation polymer forms on the surface of the substrate.

The etching process is the same for silicon or germanium slices but the concentration of HF used for the Germanium substrates is higher. This method was disclosed in the Heidenreich patent. Typical germanium etch solution includes a mixture of nitric, hydrofluoric, and acetic acid. Moreover, the solution also contains bromine. To remove the bromine, 7 ml of IBr solution is added to the CP-4 etch solution. This provides an advantageous germanium etching solution.

Is Germanium Easy to Anneal?

The fabrication of devices with Ge substrates requires careful attention to surface preparation. There are several factors to consider in the surface preparation recipe. In order to obtain optimal results, several cycles of annealing should be used. This article examines the process and the characteristics of Ge substrates. It is important to use a suitable annealing recipe for the application. The following sections provide an overview of some of the key considerations.

An example of an effective process is post-metallization annealing in nitrogen at 400degC. The higher the concentration of Ge, the smaller the FWHM of the XRD peak. In addition, more Ge atoms contribute to stress. A 30% Ge layer was chosen based on the quality of the epitaxy layer, implanted with boron specious, and studied using MWA and RTA techniques.

After annealing at 580 degC for 30 min, the Ge layer undergoes partial agglomeration. This process produces large particles in a narrow channel and small particles on top of the continuous Ge layer. However, even longer anneals at this temperature do not cause complete agglomeration. At 600 degC, the Ge particles form a uniformly dispersed surface, with a relatively small average size.

In the case of a high-molecular-weight BCP, laser annealing can also be used. Compared to conventional oven annealing, the technique allows a greater degree of spatial and temporal control. This technique, known as zone annealing, was initially restricted to substrates coated with germanium. It required high irradiation power density. Nowadays, fiber-coupled near-IR laser sources make it possible to carry out BCP annealing over a large surface area of silicon wafers.

Can Germanium be Reclaimed and Reused?

Reusable germanium substrates are useful in a number of applications, including:

  • sensors
  • quantum computing
  • data storage

The development of reusable germanium substrates has paved the way for the production of a variety of high-quality semiconductor devices. Among other uses, they can be used in terrestrial applications. In this collaborative research project, we will develop an integrated methodology that integrates theory, multiscale computer simulation, and experiments. We will use the Monte Carlo method to identify the optimum conditions for the formation of micro-patterned compositional distributions in a silicon-germanium substrate. We will also study surface strain patterns in a context of growing ordered germanium nanostructures on a germanium substrate.

For the etching process, germanium oxide is dispersed in water. A reusable germanium substrate with a large surface area is more likely to achieve a good result without etch pits. This is because the germanium oxide is not connected to an external current source. The resulting etched region forms a virtual anode and the surrounding area acts as a cathode. The large surface area allows for large hole current densities and small electron current densities to be used for the etching process.

The process of controlled spalling allows for the removal of thin films from Ge substrates, enabling reusable etching for III-V single-junction photovoltaic devices. The development of flexible electronics is hindered by technological constraints, but the high material cost of photovoltaic devices has led to increased interest in the field of substrate removal. To date, DC magnetron sputtering has been used to remove semiconductor devices from Ge substrates, but it is time-consuming and expensive.

What Does Germanium Cost?

The cost of Germanium substrates varies considerably from manufacturer to manufacturer. The cost of this material can be as high as $50,000 per kilo of Germanium. The material is used in many applications, including thermographic imaging solutions, commercial security, firefighting, industrial monitoring equipment, and mirrors for lasers. In addition, Germanium blanks are often used in thin solar cells, such as those used in CPV systems and III-V triple-junction solar cells.

In addition to the high price of germanium substrates, other factors restrict the use of this material for advanced electronic devices. Electron confinement and dopant diffusion have been major barriers to the development of germanium-based electronics. The high cost of germanium substrates has also hampered the development of planar nanoscale devices. Despite the challenges, recent progress has resulted in the development of inexpensive germanium nanowires for high-performance field-effect transistors.