Sapphire Windows (Al2O3) for Research & Development

university wafer substrates

Sapphire Substrate for Graphene Deposition

A Research/Teaching Assistant requested a quote for the follwoing:


We would like to order Sapphire wafers and Monolayer Graphene on 285nmSiO2/Si. Could you give information about the delivery time, and quality and price of Graphene sample?

Could you also give information about the delivery time and quality of the sample: Monolayer Graphene on SiO2/Si 300nm 70x70 mm?

For example, what is the coverage of monolayer Graphene?
Also, could you prepare them as 1cmx1cm wafers (49 wafers in total)?

Could you send its Raman, XPS and AFM images? Do you have any Raman map from a big area of the sample?


The following information is related with the Monolayer Graphene on SiO2/Si 300nm 70x70 mm:

  • Lead time: Around 3 weeks.
  • For the quality, Please contact us and reference #164511
  • They are fully covered
  • We can supply samples of 70x70 mm or samples of 10x10 mm. The lead time for the samples of 10x10 is lower and they are cheaper, because they are a standard product.
  • We can give you the service of Raman in different points of the sample.

Reference #164511 for specs and quantity.

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Buy Sapphire Windows Online and SAVE!

Sapphire wafer substrate manufacturers are constantly investigating methods needed for making sapphire wafers for LEDs power semiconductors, watch glasses, and other sapphire substrates. Let UniversityWafer, Inc. help you with your research.

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Below are just some of the sapphire windows that we have in stock.

Please let us know if you can use or provide us with your specs/qty.

We can manufacture Sapphire up to 200mm in diameter!

Item# Dia Ori Thick (um) Polish
3156 Rectangle <0001> 500um SSP
3467 10mmX10mm <0001> 430um DSP
3409 6.0mm <0001> 100um DSP
1251 50.8mm <0001> 430um DSP
1306 50.8mm <0001> 430um SSP
2768 50.8mm <0001> 330um DSP
3407 50.8mm <0001> 100um DSP
1732 100mm <0001> 650um SSP
2562 100mm <0001> 650um DSP

Other diameters/dimensions also available

What are Some Sapphire Applications?

Sapphire wafers can be used for any surface application. In addition to use in electronics, flat sapphire sapphire wafersubstrates have been used for decades in optoelectronic applications, such as flat panel displays and microscopes. By placing one electrode in a substrate, scientists have been able to create a thin layer of metal oxide that absorbs all the ultraviolet light that hits the display or microscope, thus rendering it totally inaccessible to the human eye. Scientists are now using these flat substrates for photovoltaic applications, such as creating solar cells and solar concentrators.

A variety of scientific applications rely on flat sapphire, including chemical analysis, fluorescence, photoelectric effect measurement and crystal geling. This versatile material can be used for high-quality photographic plates and flat sheets as well. A common feature of sapphire is its ability to allow most color hues to pass through it, which is why sapphire engagement rings have always been a favorite of jewelers. Sapphires can be transparent or opaque, and often come in a rainbow of colors. While sapphire engagement rings cannot be manufactured in all colors, those that can be found are found in colors ranging from yellow-green through blue-white. These sapphires are also popularly used as rubies and emeralds, as well as being used to design watches and cufflinks.

Sapphire Window Orientations

Most of us are familiar with the two major ways to develop a sapphire for optical applications. The first way is known as the "R-axis" and consists of flat plates, called waveplates, having flat troughs in their centers which are aligned to a particular rotation axis, usually referred to as the "Azimuthalignment". This method produces a high quality image from a flat source. The R-axis is easy to apply, and requires little fabrication. The second method, named the "M-axis", is more complicated and involves a much more precise alignment of the crystals.

Both methods of sapphire orientation are based on the same fundamental optical measurement called birefringence. Birefringence is a measure for the crystalline imbalance which occurs when a light wave strikes a light source. The best measurements for birefringence take place when the crystals are perfectly spherical, because near spherical crystals tend to have a higher birefringence than those which are slightly irregular. A high biref ration increases the sharpness of the image produced by a sapphire, improves brightness and also helps to produce better color rendition.

The second basic measurement, called the optical axis, determines the viewing angle for a sapphire crystal. This value is actually a logarithmically function of the primary azimuth, measured at different positions along the crystal's axis of symmetry. It is usually denoted by a symbol representing the angle (or radii) on the horizontal and vertical axes. In the case of the R-axis, this angle is measured along the x-axis. In the case of the M-axis, it is measured along the y-axis.

The most significant influence on sapphire crystal orientation is found when the secondary, or top, surface of the crystal is flat. The flatness of the secondary improves the focal length and hence the resolution of the image or photograph. The sapphire and its orientation must be taken into consideration when a photographer is choosing a fast lens for his camera. The faster the lens, the sharper the image.

S Ascendancy is another important property of a sapphire. It indicates the orientation of the crystal on a plane that is coincident with the viewing frustum. In simple terms, when the viewing window is coincident with the sapphire's plane of symmetry, the birefringence is balanced. When the window and the birefringence are not coincident, then the sapphire shows a positive birefringence.

Sapphire's birefringence is proportional to the wavelessness of the water clear. This means that, for any given waveless level, the birefringe will be slightly less than one third of the distance between the plane's axis of symmetry and the interior face of the crystal. It also means that the color and brightness of the natural sapphire are enhanced when light of a particular color is added to the detector. Another advantage of having a single crystal rather than two or more is that, for very low intensities, detectors equipped with infrared lights are far more effective than their conventional equivalents at resolving light.

The birefringence is made much thinner in modern sapphire windows than was the case in centuries past. The thickness of the birefringence is dependent upon the optical resolution required by the detector. Modern detectors have been designed so that they can resolve light at lower power than had been the norm in the past. In this way the quality of the final result is enhanced even though the optical system is made much thinner. A sapphire window with a single chip instead of two or more will provide much better optical resolution than a detector which has been made much thicker.

There are no special properties possessed by the sapphire crystal when it is viewed through an eyepiece. The refractive index of the crystal is exactly the same regardless of the direction in which it is viewed. In other words, no matter what the angle in which we view a sapphire crystal, it will always possess the same refractive index on account of the identical optical properties. The sapphire crystal only has an edge of zero, i.e. it does not refract light in the desired way.

  • R-axis (10-12)
  • C-axis (0001)
  • A-axis (11-20)
  • M-axis (11-10)

A-Plane Sapphire Window Inventory

C-plane Sapphire Window Inventory

Diameter: 50.8±0.1mm
Orientation: C-Plane(0001)
M- axis 0.2±0.1 deg off, A- axis 0±0.1 deg off
Primary flat orientation :
A-plane(11-20) ±0.3deg
Primary flat length: 16.0±1mm
Thickness: 400±15um
Bow: ≤10um
TTV: ≤10um
Micro-roughness: Ra≤0.3nm
Front surface finish: Epi-polished
Back surface finish: Fine Ground
Packing: vacuum-sealed in 25 wafers Email us for low pricing

Diameter: 50.8±0.1mm
Orientation: C-Plane(0001)
M- axis 0.2±0.1 deg off, A- axis 0±0.1 deg off
Primary flat orientation :
A-plane(11-20) ±0.3deg
Primary flat length: 16.0±1mm
Thickness: 400±15um
Bow: ≤10um
TTV: ≤10um
Micro-roughness: Ra≤0.3nm
Front surface finish: Epi-polished
Back surface finish: Epi-polished
Packing: vacuum-sealed in 25 wafers Email us for low pricing

  • Al2O3 Sapphire Wafer, C-plane (0001), 5x5x0.5mm, SSP
  • Al2O3 Sapphire Wafer, C-plane (0001), 5x5x0.5mm, DSP
  • Al2O3- Sapphire Wafer, C-plane (0001), 10mmx5mmx0.5mm, DSP
  • Al2O3 - Sapphire Wafer, C-plane (0001), 10x10x0.1mm, DSP
  • Al2O3- Sapphire Wafer, C-plane (0001), 10x10x0.1mm, SSP

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M-Plane Sapphire Window Inventory

R-Plane Sapphire Window Inventory

Part number
Size Orient Qty Polished
A.23.0309 107.95*1.2195mm R-PLANE 4 no
A.24.0011 100*0.5mm R-PLANE 5 single
A.24.0024 50.8*0.43mm R-PLANE 22 single 
A.25.0062 100*0.5mm R-PLANE 17 double
A.32.0096 82.55*68.072mm R-PLANE 464 no
A.33.0217 82.55*68.072*2.413mm R-PLANE 4 no
A.33.0218 82.55*68.072*2.794mm R-PLANE 18 no
A.35.0055 25.4*25.4*0.254mm R-PLANE 26 double

Sapphire Wafer
2", 430um,SSP, R plane
Delivery Time: 1 Day

Sapphire Wafer
2", 430um,DSP, R plane
Delivery Time: 1 Day

What are Sapphire Windows?

A window that uses sapphire as the material is known as a'sapphire window'. The name derives from the what do sapphire windows look likefact that sapphire is one of the hardest natural substances and is perfect for high-pressure applications. It is also chemically inert to temperatures up to 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit and is highly scratch-resistant. Sapphire is second only to diamond in strength and durability. For these reasons, it is often chosen for its durability and longevity. Its transmission range from UV to mid-IR is comparable to that of quartz and fused silica.

What is Natural Sapphire?

If you're looking for a durable window material, consider sapphire. The stone is one of the hardest substances on Earth after diamond. In addition to being strong and durable, sapphire is also thermally efficient and resilient to abrasion, chemicals, and scratches. Its insoluble substrate makes sapphire windows more durable than other crystal alternatives. Because sapphire's hardness is so great, sapphire windows are often much thinner than their glass or metal counterparts. They also tend to last a long time, up to a century or longer.

While sapphire windows are extremely durable, the material is often synthetically grown. This process is used to cut sapphire into windows at lower costs while preserving the natural source. The process mimics how sapphire is naturally formed, by subjecting the sapphire seed crystal to high heat and pressure. Once the crystal expands, it can hold up to a significant amount of heat without cracking or chipping. Despite these advantages, synthetic sapphire windows are more expensive than their natural counterparts.

As sapphire is a highly durable substance, sapphire windows are prized in many different industries. In addition to being an exceptional window material, sapphire is used in eyeglasses, camera lenses, microscope lenses, and even military-grade equipment. Because of its extreme resistance to abrasion and scratching, sapphire glazing is suitable for high-pressure applications, such as combustion chambers, furnaces, and boats.

Sapphire has the highest temperature rating of any optical material. It can withstand temperatures as high as 1700 degC and still remain flat. In addition to being incredibly durable, sapphire windows can also be resistant to chemical substances. While sapphire is not as resistant as quartz or fused silica, it is perfect for sensitive electronic components. Whether it is used in a medical instrument, industrial instrument, or laboratory filter, sapphire windows are the best.

What is Synthetic Sapphire?

Among the many applications of synthetic sapphire, these windows are used for the checkout counter in stores. They are highly resistant to scratches and abrasions and are also used for biometric fingerprint sensors. Smartphone manufacturers may be interested in adopting this technology for their products. But the main question is: can it be made into a functional window? The answer is a resounding yes! Read on to learn more about how synthetic sapphire works and how it can be incorporated into windows.

The color of sapphire windows can be blue, green, or purple, depending on its light source. The deep blue sapphires contain iron and titanium. Besides color, sapphire windows may also feature other colors. Some stones exhibit color shifts very well, while others do so only partially. Moreover, some stones shift from blue to purple when exposed to fluorescent light, and vice versa. These stones are rare and are generally not used in mainstream jewelry. However, synthetic sapphire windows are available to replicate their beauty.

In addition to being durable, sapphire windows also have excellent chemical and mechanical properties. Sapphire glass is extremely resistant to chemicals and is inert at cryogenic temperatures. Because of its chemical inertness, sapphire windows are suitable for extreme thermal applications. Sapphire windows are also scratch-resistant, resulting in greater safety in high-pressure and heat conditions. However, sapphire can still crack if the structure of the glass is compromised. This means that proper care must be taken when designing these windows.

As a result of these benefits, synthetic sapphire windows are ideal for demanding applications. They are available in a variety of stock sizes. Their hardness and excellent transmission spectrum make them the perfect material for photodiodes, industrial & medical applications, and other demanding applications. But what makes synthetic sapphire windows the best choice for windows? For those who are looking for clarity and durability, this material is unsurpassed.

As a material with a long list of potential industrial applications, synthetic sapphire is one of the most cost-effective alternatives for traditional glass windows. As it's stronger than standard glass, synthetic sapphire is used for spectroscopy, in barcode scanners in supermarkets, and in military armor suits. With its use in various applications, synthetic sapphire is now forming the backbone for future electronics. Today, it has become the primary component for LED production.

What are Sapphire Optical Windows

Sapphire is a transparent natural material with a range of properties from 170nm to 5.3um. It is extremely strong and durable, with a Mohs hardness of 9. As such, sapphire optical windows have several advantages. In contrast to other common optical windows, sapphire doesn't darken when exposed to UV light. Therefore, sapphire windows are highly resistant to UV light, allowing them to be used in a wide range of applications.

Because of their high purity, sapphire windows are often used in a wide variety of optical applications. Sapphire windows, for example, are used to protect sensitive sensors and electronic instruments. The transparency of such windows does not impact magnification. They can be optically polished, incorporating an element for diffusing light, or coated with AR coatings. Sapphire windows come in various materials, including UV fused silica. Sapphire windows have the potential to transmit light from deep ultraviolet to far-infrared wavelengths.

In addition to its excellent transmission properties, sapphire also has a thin profile, making them ideal for a variety of applications. The material has a wide wavelength range between 0.15 and 5.5um, making it useful in a variety of optical applications. Since sapphire does not darken under UV radiation, it is often used in high-temperature, high-pressure, and high thermal load environments. Sapphire windows are often used in instruments, lasers, and IR analytical devices.

The key characteristics of sapphire include its ability to maintain its clarity, and durability under extreme heat, high impact, and abrasion. These properties make sapphire windows ideal for the military, as they are able to resist damage from impact, abrasion, and chemicals. Sapphire windows are also used in high-security vehicles, such as fighter jets, submarines, and bulletproof armor. The durability of sapphire windows means that they are also extremely durable, and they are able to keep workers safe.

What are Sapphire Waveplates?

Custom-designed sapphire waveplates are manufactured at several companies including UniversityWafer, Inc. and extend polarization control to infrared wavelengths. Available in 1/4 and 1/2-wave configurations, these waveplates are thinner than quartz waveplates and exhibit a Mohs hardness of nine. They also exhibit excellent shock, chemical, and temperature resistance. In addition to being highly durable, these waveplates are ideal for a wide range of optical applications.

The three main types of Sapphire Waveplates are multiple order, single and multi-order. Single-plate, multiple-order, and multi-order waveplates are the least expensive. These are commonly used in laboratories and other climate-controlled settings, and their chromatic shift is exploited in mineralogy. Each type of Sapphire Waveplate is described in detail below. We also discuss how each of these three types of waveplates differs from one another.

The first type of Sapphire Waveplate is known as achromatic. It works with a wide range of wavelengths, from 400nm to 1100nm. These waveplates can be customized to target a range of wavelengths. The second type is known as super achromatic. It works with two types of sapphire and is able to handle both visible and NIR wavelengths. Its higher chromatic performance makes it the perfect solution for many optical applications.

Micro Waveplates are available with high tolerances. They can be 0.35mm x 0.35mm with a 0.05mm tolerance. These plates can be mounted on a substrate, as well as epoxy-cemented or optically contacted. They also have a polarization-reflective coating. They can also be ordered in custom-designed packages to fit your unique requirements. For more information, contact Shanghai Optics.

High-pressure, vacuum, and thermal-compression, high dielectric constant, and low friction make sapphire optical windows ideal for many applications. Sapphire is also a birefringent material that works effectively in a wide range of wavelengths. Sapphire waveplates are ideal for many applications in medical and research settings. They can operate from ultraviolet to mid-IR wavelengths and are highly conductive. These properties make sapphire windows ideal for high-precision laser and optics testing.

Video: Sapphire Windows