In the semiconductor industry, this design requires that a number of patterns be mapped and transferred to the silicon wafer. The photo mask consists of a combination of photoresistence, photodetectors and photoreceptors, and the Nikon uses multiple sensors to precisely position the photomasks on the silicone wafers. Although the well-developed technology comes directly from semiconductor manufacturing, most of the process is still in silicon. However, there are toolboxes for producing microfluidic chips such as the micromicrofluidic chip PDMS on silicon wafers, starting with the development of microfabrication tools for microfibers in the late 1990s.
Step 1. Create a Negative Master
Step 2. Pour Liquid PDMS
Step 3. Detach Cured PDMS
Step 4. Bond to Glass Slide
Please provide us with your glass specs for an immediate quote.
Our clients often use the following silicon wafers for the above applications:
PDMS micro-fluidic chip platforms for micro-organoid cell culture applications.
|Definition of a microfluidic platform||A microfluidic platform provides a set of fluidic unit operations, which are designed for easy combination within a well-defined fabrication technology. A microfluidic platform paves a generic and consistent way for miniaturization, integration, automation and parallelization of (bio-)chemical processes.|
|Lateral flow tests||In lateral flow tests, also known as test strips (e.g. pregnancy test strip), the liquids are driven by capillary forces. Liquid movement is controlled by the wettability and feature size of the porous or microstructured substrate. All required chemicals are pre-stored within the strip. The readout of a test is typically done optically and is quite often implemented as color change of the detection area that can be seen by the naked eye.|
|Linear actuated devices||Linear actuated devices control liquid movement by mechanical displacement of liquid e.g. by a plunger. Liquid control is mostly limited to a one-dimensional liquid flow in a linear fashion without branches or alternative liquid pathways. Typically liquid calibrants and reaction buffers are pre-stored in pouches.|
|Pressure driven laminar flow||A pressure driven laminar flow platform is characterized by liquid transport mechanisms based on pressure gradients. Typically this leads to hydrodynamically stable laminar flow profiles in microchannels. There is a broad range of different implementations in terms of using external or internal pressure sources such as using syringes, pumps or micropumps, gas expansion principles, pneumatic displacement of membranes, etc. The samples and reagents are processed by injecting them into the chip inlets either batch-wise or in a continuous mode.|
|Microfluidic large scale integration||Microfluidic large scale integration describes a microfluidic channel circuitry with chip-integrated microvalves based on flexible membranes between a liquid-guiding layer and a pneumatic control-channel layer. The microvalves are closed or open corresponding to the pneumatic pressure applied to the control-channels. Just by combining several microvalves more complex units like micropumps, mixers, multiplexers, etc. can be built up with hundreds of units on one single chip.|
|Segmented flow microfluidics||Segmented flow microfluidics describes the principle of using small liquid plugs and/or droplets immersed in a second immiscible continuous phase (gas or liquid) as stable micro-confinements within closed microfluidic channels. Those micro-confinements are in the picolitre to microlitre volume range. They can be transported by pressure gradients and can be merged, split, sorted, and processed without any dispersion in microfluidic channels.|
|Centrifugal microfluidics||In centrifugal microfluidics all processes are controlled by the frequency protocol of a rotating microstructured substrate. The relevant forces for liquid transport are centrifugal force, Euler force, Coriolis force and capillary force. Assays are implemented as a sequence of liquid operations arranged from radially inward positions to radially outward positions. Microfluidic unit operations include metering, switching, aliquoting, etc.|
|Electrokinetics||In electrokinetics platforms microfluidic unit operations are controlled by electric fields acting on electric charges, or electric field gradients acting on electric dipoles. Depending on buffers and/or sample, several electrokinetic effects such as electroosmosis, electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis, and polarization superimpose each other. Electroosmosis can be used to transport the whole liquid bulk while the other effects can be used to separate different types of molecules or particles within the bulk liquid.|
|Electrowetting||Electrowetting platforms use droplets immersed in a second immiscible continuous phase (gas or liquid) as stable micro-confinements. The droplets reside on a hydrophobic surface that contains a one- or two-dimensional array of individually addressable electrodes. The voltage between a droplet and the electrode underneath the droplet defines its wetting behavior. By changing voltages between neighboring electrodes, droplets can be generated, transported, split, merged, and processed. These unit operations are freely programmable for each individual droplet by the end-user enabling online control of an assay.|
|Surface acoustic waves||The surface acoustic waves platform uses droplets residing on a hydrophobic surface in a gaseous environment (air). The microfluidic unit operations are mainly controlled by acoustic shock waves travelling on the surface of the solid support. The shock waves are generated by an arrangement of surrounding sonotrodes, defining the droplet manipulation area. Most of the unit operations such as droplet generation, transport, mixing, etc. are freely programmable.|
|Dedicated systems for massively parallel analysis||Within the category of dedicated systems for massively parallel analysis we discuss specific platforms that do not comply with our definition of a generic microfluidic platform. The characteristics of those platforms are not given by the implementation of the fluidic functions but by the specific way to process up to millions of assays in parallel. Prominent examples are platforms used for gene expression and sequencing such as microarrays, bead-based assays and pyro-sequencing in picowell-plates.|