Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Substrates

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CdTe Costs Less than Silicon Solar

CdTe based solar cells is lowering the cost of solar panels. The material is more efficient than traditional silicon photovoltaics and other thin-film solar technologies. Currently, the price of the raw Cad mite material , or "tellurium," is 10-20% lower than that of silicon, and at the same time the production costs for the production of Cadmium - telluid foils - are also lower, which reduces the cost of capital and at the same time the total cost per kilowatt hour - the hour of a CdTe - on a photivoltaic basis, according to the researchers.

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CdTe Solar Cells

A new deposition method created at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to fabricate highly efficient CdTe solar cells using a CSS deposition method. This requires the use of thin polyimides deposited onto a superstrate structur.

The methods described here have lower costs than those used to produce cadmium telluride films. The reported efficiency of the CdTe - Beat Silicon - CIGS Technology Cad mite substrates are obtained with CSS deposition methods, with the highest efficiency for the substrate (polyIMIDE) being 7.3%, while the lowest efficiency for a thin film (non-cd Te) substrate is 7-8% (25-28%).

Cadmium Telluride Wafer (CdTe)CdTe wafer

Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Substrates

Below are just some of the CdTe wafers that we have in stock:

  • CdTe (100), undoped, P-type 5x5x1.0 mm, SSP
  • CdTe (100), undoped, P-type 5x5x1.0 mm, DSP
  • CdTe (110), undoped, P-type 5x5x1.0 mm, SSP
  • CdTe (110), undoped, P-type 5x5x1.0 mm, DSP
  • CdTe (111) A, Cd-terminated, undoped, P-type 5x5x0.4-0.5 mm, SSP
  • CdTe (111) B, undoped, P-type 5x5x0.4 mm, SSP
  • CdTe, Undoped, P-type, (110) 10x10x1.0 mm, DSP
  • CdTe (100) , undoped, P-type 10x10x1.0 mm, SSP
  • CdTe doped with Zn, P type , (CZT ) (111) 10x10x 1.0mm, DSP
  • CdZnTe (111) P type, 5x5x0.5mm SSP
  • CdZnTe (111)B, with Zn concentration around 14% , P type, 10.5x10.5x1.0mm 1sp R:>1E6 ohm.cm
  • CdTe (111), Undoped, P-type 10x10x0.5 mm, SSP
  • CdTe (111), Undoped, P-type 10x10x0.9 mm, DSP
  • CdTe (111), Undoped, P-type 15x15x0.5 mm, SSP
  • CdTe (111)B, Undoped, P-type 10x10x1.0 mm, SSP with B face to be polished
  • Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x=0.17, Undoped, N-type 14x12x0.5 mm, DSP

 

Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells Research

#spectrum #eV #absorption #gap #band

GIGS solar cells have a very high absorption coefficient at their band gap of 1.5 eV, resulting in a very strong absorption of the solar spectrum. [23]

Furthermore it has a band gap of around 1.5 eV, which is close to the optimum for a terrestrial solar cell. [23]

Research in CdTe dates back to the 1950s, because its band gap ( ~1.5 eV ) is almost a perfect match to the distribution of photons in the solar spectrum in terms of conversion to electricity. [18]

High absorption : Cadmium telluride is a direct - bandgap material with bandgap energy of about 1.45 defined ( eV ), which is well matched to the solar spectrum and nearly optimal for converting sunlight into electricity using a single junction. [17]


#telluride #technology

Cadmium telluride solar cell, also called cadmium telluride photovoltaic or cadmium telluride thin film, a photovoltaic device that produces electricity from light by using a thin film of cadmium telluride ( CdTe ). [16]

Low - cost manufacturing : Cadmium telluride solar cells use low - cost manufacturing technology to produce low - cost cells. [17]

Cadmium telluride ( CdTe ) thin - film solar cells show great potential due to their high efficiency, thermal stability, and low manufacturing cost. [15]

In a multi - kilowatt system, cadmium telluride photovoltaic is the only thin - film technology that is inexpensive than any other conventional solar cells made of crystalline silicon. [22]

Click on the appropriate link to return to the top of this page about Cadmium Telluride technology or to return to the previous section about Thin Film Technologies. [0]


#company

First Solar was the first manufacturer of Cadmium telluride panels to produced solar cells for less than $ 1.00 per watt. [0]

In 2013, First Solar acquired GE's thin film solar panel technology in exchange for a 1.8 % stake in the company. [18]

Some key manufacturers of the global cadmium telluride photovoltaic market include First Solar, Advanced Solar Power, Antec Solar, Calyxo, CNBM ( Chengdu ) Optoelectronic Materials, CTF Solar, D2solar, Dmsolar, RSI, UPT Solar, and Willard & Kelsey ( WK ) Solar, among others. [22]

SunPower is a highly vertically integrated solar products and services company that prides itself for being the most efficient PV solar company worldwide. [24]

Toldeo Solar shares that the company's panels offer 16.5 % efficiency, coming in at a size of 60 x 120 cm. [13]


#silicon #modules #compared #efficient

This allows SunPower about a 5 % advantage in efficiency over other competing crystalline silicone manufacturers whose crystalline solar modules are about 15 % efficient. [24]

Typically, CdTe panels have less power and lower efficiency without the benefit of significantly lower cost, when compared to crystalline - silicon. [13]

Due to a sunlightthat is close to the ideal wavelength, CdTe thin film modules are much more efficient than comparable crystalline silicon produces. [7]

PV modules experience half the reduction of crystalline silicon modules, resulting in an increased annual energy output of 5 - 9 %. [18]

Moreover, the company says they more efficiently utilize the light spectrum of the sun, providing more power output than similar silicon panels. [9]

Module efficiencies are measured in laboratories at standard testing temperatures of 25 degC, however in the field modules are often exposed to much higher temperatures. [18]


#deposition #substrate #vapor

Typical CdTe thin - film deposition techniques include : close - spaced sublimation, vapor - transport deposition, physical - vapor deposition, sputter deposition, electrodeposition, metal - organic chemical - vapor deposition, spray deposition, and screen - print deposition. [17]

In this work, thin film CdS / CdTe solar cells have been prepared using CdS films grown from an aqueous solution and p - CdTe films deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition ( MOCVD ) and close - spaced sublimation ( CSS ). [4]

The CdTe films deposited by CSS show considerably better microstructure than those by MOCVD because of the higher substrate temperature used in the CSS process. [4]

It is also much more conducive to mass production, as the CdTe thin film can be deposited onto the substrate quickly and is a high - throughput technology. [16]


#power #orders #purchase

Toledo Solar, Inc., will begin shipping its Tier 1 panels to customers worldwide in June, and they already have over $ 800 million in purchase orders for solar panels, power converters and energy storage systems. [9]

And while the company posts a gaudy claim that it already has "over $ 800 million in purchase orders for solar panels, power converters and energy storage systems," those orders are likely not going to become a wedge in First Solar's market. [13]

The panels, dubbed 'Tier 1,' are assumed to produce 115 W. This size, efficiency and power rating puts the panels in - line with First Solar's series 4. [13]

Regular plant inspections and power monitoring would be required of First Solar's on - the - ground maintenance people, Mulvaney explained, which would immediately make them aware of panel damage. [10]


#sources #fuel #electricity #fossil #cost

Electricity produced by cadmium telluride ( CdTe ) photovoltaic modules is the lowest - cost electricity in the solar industry, and now undercuts fossil fuel - based sources in many regions of the world. [14]

Electricity produced by cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells is the lowest - cost available in the solar industry, undercutting fossil fuel - based sources in many regions of the world. [1]

Efforts include : CdTe is generating electricity at levelized costs that are less than or equal to traditional fossil - fuel energy sources, and it has headroom for improvement. [20]

Sampath remarked that over his career, solar power has evolved from an obscure, expensive energy source to one whose cost structure has dipped below coal - powered sources. [2]

During their operation, these modules do not produce any pollutants, and furthermore, by displacing fossil fuels, they offer great environmental benefits. [0]


#efficiency #record

Lower efficiency levels : Cadmium telluride solar panels currently achieve an efficiency of 10.6 %, which is significantly lower than the typical efficiencies of silicon solar cells. [0]

The record efficiency for a laboratory CdTe solar cell is 22.1 % by First Solar, while First Solar recently reported its average commercial module efficiency to be 16.1 % at the end of 2015. [17]

In contrast to traditional crystalline silicon, cadmium telluride solar cells are faster and take less energy to make, and today boast a record light - to - energy efficiency of 22 %, held by First Solar, a longtime collaborator with CSU. [2]

As mentioned above, SunPower makes the world's most efficient production solar cells - 24 %, which result in the most efficient modules of about 20 %. [24]


#modules #cost #win

Almost all thin film photovoltaic module systems to - date have been non - solar tracking, because module output was too low to offset tracker capital and operating costs. [18]

This made solar panels much more affordable for customers, but it seriously eroded the price advantage of First Solar's thin film modules. [24]

This agreement with GE has the purpose or restoring some of the CdTe thin film profits and at the same time increases the sales of CdTe thin film modules through GE's extensive sales resources - a win - win combination for both parties. [24]

Mulvaney said First Solar is required to handle PV modules in a way that minimizes any accidental cadmium leakage at other sites. [10]

The cost and availability of capital is very important in order to win large projects as most are hard pressed for financing. [24]


#photovoltaic #market #telluride #growing

The Middle Eastern and African cadmium telluride photovoltaic market are anticipated to grow significantly in the -future, owing to the growing demand for cadmium telluride photovoltaic for industrial and utility applications. [22]

Moreover, the growing adoption of cadmium telluride photovoltaic in various countries is likely to have a major impact on the global cadmium telluride photovoltaic market in the years ahead. [22]

On the other hand, the increasing research and development and technological advancements related to cadmium telluride photovoltaic are projected to offer lucrative growth opportunities in the cadmium telluride photovoltaic market. [22]

The Asia Pacific cadmium telluride photovoltaic industry is expected to grow remarkably over the next few years, owing to the growing demand for photovoltaics for industrial applications. [22]

Moreover, in 2018, the residential application segment of the cadmium telluride photovoltaic market globally held the largest market share and is projected to dominate the market in the future. [22]


#achieved #circuit #limit #degradation

The record short - circuit current density achieved in CdTe solar cells has approached the theoretical limit, and the fill factor has also reached very high levels. [8]

The limitations to the open - circuit current in CdTe primarily arise from its low acceptor density and short minority carrier lifetimes. [8]

Significant improvements have been achieved in preparing CdTe shallow homojunctions with conversion efficiencies over 11 % AM1 ( higher than 13 % with proper A.R. coating ). [3]

CdTe solar cells have the potential to undercut the costs of electricity generated by other technologies, if the open - circuit voltage can be increased beyond 1 V without significant decreases in current. [12]

Even though the technology offers lower degradation rates and higher resistances to shading, having to cover a larger area and spend more to achieve comparable generation has always been a considerable hurdle. [13]


#layer #CdS #light

CdTe cells achieved above 15%[clarification needed ] in 1992 by adding a buffer layer to the TCO / CdS / CdTe stack and then thinned the CdS to admit more light. [18]

In a typical CdTe module, the top layer is p - type cadmium sulfide ( CdS ) and the bottom layer is n - type CdTe. [24]

Together, the CdTe, intermediate, and TCO layers form an electric field that converts light absorbed in the CdTe layer into current and voltage. [20]

The most common CdTe solar cells consist of a simple p - n heterojunction structure containing a p - doped CdTe layer matched with an n - doped cadmium sulfide ( CdS ) layer, which acts as a window layer. [17]

Thick CdS, as it was used in prior devices, blocked about 5 mA / cm2 of light, or about 20 % of the light usable by a CdTe device. [18]


#voltage #circuit #volts

By using a new process to grow crystals of the material, they were able to improve the maximum voltage for a CdTe solar cell, called open - circuit voltage. [12]

Curves of current density against voltage for solar cells fabricated from phosphorus - doped cadmium telluride ( CdTe ) show an open - circuit voltage ( V oc ) of greater than 1V can be achieved. [8]

Since modules are in parallel for the micro inverter system, the voltage drops from approximately 600 volts to a safer 240 volts. [24]

Our solar cells, which achieved an open - circuit voltage in excess of 1V, used bulk wafers of single CdTe crystals with a thickness of 0.8 mm as a proof of concept. [8]

J. M. Burst, J. N. Duenow, D. Albin, E. Colegrove, M. O. Reese, J. A. Aguiar, C.-S. Jiang, et al ., CdTe solar cells with open - circuit voltage breaking the 1 V barrier, Nat. [8]


#University #Toledo #Ohio #Group #technology

Toledo University, along with the Ohio Federal Research Network were chosen to evaluate the equipment and technology at the Perrysburg, Ohio location. [13]

The Atlas Venture Group acquired the assets of Willard & Kelsey Solar Group in 2019, after working with the Ohio Federal Research Network and the University of Toledo to evaluate the equipment and technology at the Perrysburg, Ohio location. [9]

Leading a $ 30 million initiative, The Atlas Venture Group has formed a new company that manufactures cadmium telluride photovoltaic ( CdTePV ) solar panels in Toledo, Ohio. [9]

We are excited to lead this investment in Toledo and continue to push 'Cad - Tel' solar technology forward, "said Aaron Bates, chairman of The Atlas Venture Group. [13]

He and Sampath are collaborating on the DOE project with experts from University of Toledo, First Solar, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and University of Illinois at Chicago. [2]


#proton #beam #irradiation

Fig 6 shows the quantity of protons accumulated in the cell depending on the energy level when PBS proton beams of the same fluence and energies of up to 100 - 200 MeV were irradiated onto the CdTe cell. [5]

In this study, the effects of proton radiation on solar cells were investigated by irradiating 100 MeV PBS protons onto a CdTe cell. [5]

Therefore, the damage to the photovoltaic cell by proton irradiation is determined by the amount of proton fluence accumulated in the active layer depending on the energy level because the proton energy passes through the total layer when the proton energy is more than 0.5 MeV. [5]

As shown in Fig 5, the penetration depth of the protons varied from 2.3 to 7.6 cm when irradiation was performed using a proton beam energy of 100 - 200 MeV. [5]


#researchers #crystal #material #tellurium #process

The researchers claim, however, that the technique is scalable to large volumes, and that the process may enable the production of crystals that are up to 20 kg. [6]

The research team specified that, at 80 atmospheres of pressure, dopants can easily be shoved into the material, without evaporating out of the crystal or otherwise escaping the system. [6]

The researchers explained that the high - pressure environment of the furnace excludes the possibility of explosions, while allowing manufacturers to easily add a high concentration of dopants during the process itself, thus improving the performance of the crystal material. [6]

Large amounts of high - purity CdTe material with stronger electrical properties can be produced rapidly through this new process, the scientists claim. [6]

Recently, researchers have added an unusual twist a astrophysicists identify tellurium as the most abundant element in the universe with an atomic number over 40. [0]


#product #waste #concerns #materials

Manufacturers are also investigating the possibility of materials reuse and recycling as a way to mitigate concerns on toxicity and materials scarcity. [17]

A Moreover, Cadmium - as a waste and by - product in the mining industry - is a very abundant resource and thus less prone to price fluctuations. [7]

Te is almost exclusively obtained as a by - product of copper refining, with smaller amounts from lead and gold production. [18]

Despite its potential, the electronics industry has moved to try to remove elemental cadmium from personal electronics because cadmium is a cumulative poison. [16]

Not only does cadmium represent a health risk for consumers, but it is also dangerous for miners during extraction of the raw materials, for workers processing the material, and at end of life during disposal. [16]


#recycling #life #end #program

First Solar has implemented a recycling program that covers the costs of transporting and recycling the panels at the end of their useful life. [24]

In keeping with SVTC - set aims, First Solar has, Sinha indicated, a pre - funded end - of - life take - back and recycling program. [10]

Abound Solar and First Solar have strong module recycling programs in place to reclaim all the cadmium used in their modules. [11]

Through improved material efficiency and increased PV recycling, the CdTe PV industry has the potential to fully rely on tellurium from recycled end - of - life modules by 2038. [18]

Additionally, although it has been promoted that closed - loop recycling would address any concerns over end - of - life disposal, critics highlight that even closed - loop recycling systems do not recover everything. [16]


#company #manufacturing #capacity #megawatts #plans

Looking forward, the company at the end of 2012 had 24 production lines and each line had an average 70 megawatt AC capacity resulting in 1.68 GW of total manufacturing capacity. [24]

Production has now begun in the former company's 300,000 square feet facility with an annual manufacturing capacity of 100 megawatts and employs 25 people with plans for having 70 employees by year's end. [9]

The 300,000 square foot facility features an annual manufacturing capacity of 100 MW and employs 25 people, with plans for the workforce to reach 70 by year's end. [13]

Based on current orders and scale up schedules, the company will reach an annual manufacturing output of 850 megawatts by 2026, which is enough electricity to power 170,000 homes. [9]


#inverters #power #voltage #perform #Point

Solar inverters include MPPT ( Maximum Power Point Tracking ) that enables the inverter to extract an optimal amount of power from each solar string by calculating the array's Maximum Power Point ( MPP ). [24]

Solar inverters perform three major functions : they convert the current from DC to AC, they ensure that the solar current and voltage are synchronized with the grid, and they perform Maximum Power Point Tracking ( MPPT ). [24]

MPPT seeks the "unique current" that the inverter will draw from the string in order to optimize power output ( power equals voltage times current ). [24]

Power - One offers a complete line of solar inverters from a 250 watt micro - inverter for residential systems to a 1.6 MW central inverter for large scale utilities. [24]


#lifetime #density #acceptor #minority #carrier

However, after treatment with cadmium chloride, the acceptor density is of the order of 1013 - 1014cm-3 and the minority carrier lifetime is several hundred picoseconds. [8]

A log - log plot of bulk lifetime versus hole density ( or acceptor density ) for CdTe samples shows comparable performance to radiatively limited gallium arsenide ( GaAs ). [8]

With careful control of the conditions during growth and post - processing, the acceptor density in the phosphorus - doped crystals was successfully increased to the necessary range of 1016 - 1017cm-3 and the minority carrier lifetime varied between 50 and 400ns. [8]

To achieve an open - circuit voltage of greater than 1V, the acceptor density and minority carrier lifetime need to be simultaneously increased by two orders of magnitude to the range of 1016 - 1017cm-3 and ~50ns or higher, respectively. [8]


#fluence #decrease #oc #J #sc

In Fig 3A, V oc exhibits gradual degradation with changing fluence, increasing slightly when the fluence is 1x1012 cm-2 and decreasing to 89 % at a fluence of 1x1015 cm-2. [5]

Fig 3 shows the degradation of V oc, J sc, FF, and n in CdTe solar cells irradiated with a 100 MeV PBS beam according to fluence. [5]

As shown in Table 1, the values of all of the parameters except for V oc decrease as the fluence increases. [5]

J sc changes slightly when the fluence increases from 1x1012 to 1x1014 cm-2 but decreases to 44 % of that of the reference cell at the highest proton dose of 1x1015 cm-2. [5]

The change in J sc as a function of the proton dose is thought to be due to a decrease in the minority carrier lifetime, as mentioned in regard to V oc section. [5]


#article #journal #papers #published #Views

Their results were published in the journal Nature Energy earlier this month and are the subject of a "News and Views" article. [1]

Article Views are the COUNTER - compliant sum of full text article downloads since November 2008 ( both PDF and HTML ) across all institutions and individuals. [21]

Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal ( as soon as accepted ) and will be listed together on the special issue website. [19]

The Article Processing Charge ( APC ) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF ( Swiss Francs ). [19]

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere ( except conference proceedings papers ). [19]

 

Sources:

[0]: https://www.solar-facts-and-advice.com/cadmium-telluride.html

[1]: https://engr.source.colostate.edu/researchers-gain-key-insight-into-solar-materials-soaring-efficiency/

[2]: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-01/csu-isc011020.php

[3]: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-7898-0_102

[4]: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01425919208909755

[5]: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221655

[6]: https://www.pv-magazine.com/2020/01/29/a-new-manufacturing-process-for-cheaper-cdte-panels/

[7]: https://sinovoltaics.com/learning-center/solar-cells/cadmium-telluride-solar-cells-cdte-advantages/

[8]: https://spie.org/news/6479-solar-cells-based-on-cadmium-telluride-with-an-open-circuit-voltage-greater-than-1v

[9]: https://solarbuildermag.com/news/toledo-solar-opens-first-u-s-based-cadmium-telluride-solar-pv-panel-plant/

[10]: https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/how-safe-is-first-solars-cdte-thin-film

[11]: https://www.cleanenergyauthority.com/solar-energy-news/cadmium-risk-in-photovoltaic-panels-041411

[12]: https://incompliancemag.com/cdte-solar-cells-reach-new-milestone/

[13]: https://pv-magazine-usa.com/2020/05/14/a-new-player-appears-in-american-thin-film-cadmium-telluride-solar-module-manufacturing/

[14]: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41560-019-0389-z

[15]: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/ta/c6ta10441j

[16]: https://www.britannica.com/technology/cadmium-telluride-solar-cell

[17]: https://www.energy.gov/eere/solar/cadmium-telluride

[18]: https://www.hisour.com/en/cadmium-telluride-photovoltaics-39663/

[19]: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/materials/special_issues/CdTe

[20]: https://www.nrel.gov/pv/cadmium-telluride-solar-cells.html

[21]: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.7b03671

[22]: https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2019/02/12/1720664/0/en/Global-Cadmium-Telluride-Photovoltaic-Market-Worth-Over-USD-13-84-Billion-By-2025-Zion-Market-Research.html

[23]: https://www.siser.ac.uk/research/thin-film/cadmium-telluride-cdte-and-copper-indium-gallium-selenide-cigs-solar-cells

[24]: http://solarcellcentral.com/companies_page.html