Silicon Chip Wafer

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University Silicon Wafer for Production

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Silicon Wafer Chip

Below is an example of what silicon chips look like before they are cut from the wafer. The image is called a wafer map. Chips that are not perfect squares are discarded.

Thus the larger the wafer (die) the higher the yield of chips.

silicon wafer to make microchips

Silicon Chip

silicon chip diced from wafer

Silicon Wafers Used for Making Chips

Below is the timeline of wafer diameter introduction. It is interesting to not that 25mm silicon wafers are still used by researchers, mostly at the university level.

Dia Thick Year Introduced Weight per wafer  100 mm2 (10 mm) Die per wafer
1-inch (25 mm)   1960    
2-inch (51 mm) 275 µm 1969    
3-inch (76 mm) 375 µm 1972    
4-inch (100 mm) 525 µm 1976 10 grams [19] 56
4.9 inch (125 mm) 625 µm 1981    
150 mm (5.9 inch, usually referred to as "6 inch") 675 µm 1983    
200 mm (7.9 inch, usually referred to as "8 inch") 725 µm. 1992 53 grams [19] 269
300 mm (11.8 inch, usually referred to as "12 inch") 775 µm 2002 125 grams[19] 640
450 mm (17.7 inch)(proposed).[20] 925 µm future 342 grams [19] 1490
675-millimetre (26.6 in) (Theoretical).[21] Unknown future