Semiconductor Materials Properties

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Semiconductor Materials Characteristics

As of today, Silicon (Si) is still the most important material used in Si icon. Silicon wafers are used to fabricate devices. Si's unique physical and chemical properties provide the semiconductor industry with a cheap and abundant supply.

 

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Melting Points of Different Semiconductor Materials

Property Si Ge GaAs SiO2
Melting Point Celcius 1412 937 1238 ~1700
Atomic Weight 28.09 72.6 144.63 60.08
Atomic density (atoms/cm3) 4.00 x 10 to the 22 4.42 x 10 to the 22 2.21 x 10 to the 22 2.3 x 10 to the 22
Energy Band GaP (eV) 1.11 0.67 1.40 ~8

 

Silicon's Atomic Structure

Silicon's atomic structure includes the following:

  • Electrons
  • Protons
  • Neutrons

Silicon on the Periodic Table

Silicon, although abundant, is not found in pure form. Si must be purified by refining it.

The melting point of Silicon 1412 deg C.

Pure Silicon is called Intrinsic Silicon and it has no impurities.

An example of Intrinsic Silicon specs are as follows:

100mm Intrinsic FZ Si (100) >20,000 ohm-cm 500um SSP

Silicon makes up around 85% of the material used in Semiconductors. But why Silicon and not another material?

Why Use Silicon in Semiconductors?

Below are the main reasons why Silicon and not Germanium, the first semiconductor, is used in semiconductors.

  • Silicon is the second most abundant material on earth after carbon. Silicon makes up 25% of the earth crust.
  • Silicon has a higher melting point to withstand higher processing temps.
  • Silicon has a wider range of temperatures that it can function under. So from cold to hot, Silicon performance surpasses most other materials such as Germanium.
  • Silicon dioxide (SiO2) grows naturally on the surface of Silicon Wafers. SiO2 is stable insulator required in semiconductors. The mechanical properties of SiO2 means you can process the wafer at high-temp without the wafer warping.

Silicon Dioxide on Silicon Wafer

Doping Silicon

Not only can Silicon be purfied to make it Intrinsic (undoped), silicon can also be doped to create Extrinsic Silicon.

So extrinsic silicon is impure. But it's done on purpose to increase semiconductor conductivity.

Adding impurities or doping can change the electrical conductivitiy of the semiconductor.

Doped Silicon Resistivity

Doping pure silicon reduces resistivity while it improved conductivity.

Silicon pn Junctions

The heart of solid-state electronics is the pn junction. Pn junctions and is the reason why semiconductors can act as both an insulator and as a conductor.

Semiconductor Mechanical Materials Properties

The mechanical properties of semiconductors determine the electronic and optical properties, which are still the subject of extensive investigations. In order to limit and exploit impurities, atoms and crystal defects, it is necessary to develop a method for producing satisfactory semiconductor materials, which forms the basis for the development of so-called "semiconductor material technology." Due to the required level of perfection of the crystal structure required for the manufacture of semicurate components, special methods have been developed to produce the first semicodelectric materials. [Sources: 1, 5, 13]

This method, in which a thin film of semiconductors is layered on a heat-sensitive substrate material, offers the possibility of triggering changes in the properties of the semiconductor material electronically. It offers a new way to electronically trigger the change in the properties of semicodelectric materials, such as the absorption of light and the heat transfer from the surface to the subatomic plane. This method, which involves placing thick - or thin - chip layers over a heat-sensitive substrate, offers an alternative to conventional methods that electronically trigger the change in the property of a half-hearted material: the use of high-temperature heat. [Sources: 10]

The special properties of a semiconductor are determined by the materials used and the layering of these materials in the device. The size and characteristic parameters of semiconductors in a material have a significant influence on their properties, such as the absorption of light and heat transfer from the surface to the subatomic plane. [Sources: 9, 13]

The doping of a semiconductor, such as silicon, increases the number of free electrons (holes) in the semiconductors considerably. In this case, it can be said that by adding trivalent impurities (atoms) to the inner silicon semiconductor material, the number of current carriers can be increased and the conductivity of the silicon material can be improved. An intrinsic semicode electrical material can also be doped, so that it has more holes. By adding more free electron hole contamination, this can not only increase the number of holes, but also in some ways increase, in some cases even decrease, the number of electrons. [Sources: 1, 6]

The main property of an intrinsic semiconductor is the number of holes (electrons) that pass the current in this type of semiconductor. [Sources: 7]

Semiconductors doped with quintuple atoms are semiconductors of type n, because they are all holes, but if they are electrons, then they are p-types of semiconductors. Semiconductors dosed with trivalent atoms are not n-types of sediments because they do not carry electricity as negatively charged electrons (they have charge carriers known as electrons and holes). N semiconductors are extrinsic semic conductors in which the dopant atom is able to provide an additional conductive electron. The specific properties of these chips depend heavily on their impurities (doping), but the specific properties of each semicurate strongly depend on its impurities, or "doping agents." [Sources: 2, 6, 11]

This is used to produce n-like semiconductor materials that add electrons to the conductor band, increasing the number of electrons. [Sources: 0]

Composite semiconductors have properties that are useful for electronic devices and devices. They offer a wide range of properties such as high power, low power consumption, high conductivity and high electrical conductivity. [Sources: 12]

The main reason why semiconductor materials are so useful is that the behavior of semiconductors can be easily manipulated by adding impurities known as doping. The electronic properties and conductivity of a half-curate are modified in a controlled way by adding other elements, so-called doping, to the intrinsic material. Intrinsic properties can also be found in doped elements and even other elements that have been "doped" when introducing other desired properties. [Sources: 1, 3, 4]

A small amount of five-fold impurities is added to a pure semiconductor, resulting in extrinsic Ntype semiconductors. Small amounts of trivalent impurities were added to pure silicon and its inner material in a small number of ways to produce P-type semic conductors, extrinsic conductors such as P-2, N-1 and S-3. Low doping can also cause a large increase in the electrical conductivity of the material, for example by adding small amounts of p-4, P1 and P2. [Sources: 15]

Chapter 3 shows how these phenomena can be applied to elementary compounds in semiconductors and offers a new approach to understanding the plasticity of semiconductor materials. Volume 1 begins with an overview of the elastic properties of all semic conductors, including elementary compounds and pseudobinary alloys of a semic conductor, and a description of their properties. [Sources: 5]

The aim of this volume is to describe the role that semiconductors have played in modern semiconductor technology. To understand the properties of semiconductor materials, we should know the basics that are related to them. Semiconductor materials have electrical conductivity values that fall into three main categories: high, medium and low - conductive. [Sources: 5, 7, 14]

The proportion of major impurities in each atom can be less than one in ten billion, and in fact the greatest values of the dielectric constant are between 0.1 and 1.5 parts per billion in high-purity materials. Germanium - Silicon is the purest semiconductor material you can get. It is one of the most common semiconductor materials used in optical detectors and is a good candidate for the development of optical sensors such as optical microscopes. [Sources: 8, 9, 13]

 

 

Sources:

[0]: https://asdn.net/asdn/physics/semiconductor.php

[1]: https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Semiconductor

[2]: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/introchem/chapter/semiconductors/

[3]: https://metallurgyfordummies.com/semiconductor-materials.html

[4]: https://eng.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Materials_Science/Supplemental_Modules_(Materials_Science)/Semiconductors/Intrinsic_Semiconductors

[5]: https://authors.library.caltech.edu/49710/

[6]: https://www.circuitbread.com/tutorials/basics-of-semiconductors

[7]: https://pnpntransistor.com/semiconductor-properties-types-uses/

[8]: https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Semiconductor+materials

[9]: http://www.tpub.com/neets/tm/111-2.htm

[10]: https://phys.org/news/2016-10-semiconductor-properties-room-temperature.html

[11]: https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Semiconductor

[12]: https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/06/10/2046424/0/en/Compound-Semiconductor-Materials-Market-To-Reach-USD-66-66-Billion-By-2027-Reports-and-Data.html

[13]: https://www.utmel.com/blog/categories/semiconductor/semiconductor-materials-types-properties-and-production-process

[14]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor

[15]: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/basic_electronics/basic_electronics_semiconductors.htm