Why is silicon wafers preferred over Germanium wafers?
Germanium was in the first transistors. These transistors were meant to replace the vaccum tubes found in World War Two era Radar. The military wanted smaller, lighter and more powerful radar to bomb Germany.
But the ware ended and the military's, spare-no-cost, attitude became more frugal.
With the research open to the public, commercial entities discovered that Silicon worked very well in consumer items such as portable transistor radios. Thus Silicon, which is more abundant and less expensive than Germanium became the standard material and is still being used today and for the foreseable future.
The current trend is to use silicon instead of germanium, but what could be the reason? As we all know, silicon and germ are semiconductors and are among the most common materials in the world.
Silicon crystals have fewer free electrons than germanium crystals at room temperature, which is why silicon crystals are used for semiconductor devices.
In general, the ICBO of germanium is 10-100 times greater than that of silicon, but the variation of ICBo at any temperature is lower for silicon than for germanium. This means that silicon will have a higher ICBI (Inter - Cell Boundary Boiling Point), but a rough rule of thumb - of - thumb with germanium bebe says that the ICBO doubles at the same temperature.
Silicon can work up to 150 degrees Celsius, and therefore excess heat does not damage its components so easily. The maximum normal working temperature for g-germanium is 70 degrees Celsius and the structure of germanium is destroyed at about 100 degrees Celsius.
The PIV value of a silicon diode is almost 1000 V, while it is higher than that of g-germanium diodes. The Piv values for germanium diodes are closer to 400 V and for silicon to about 500 - 600 V.
The disadvantage of silicon compared to germanium is that the preload of the silicon diodes is higher than that of the germanium diodes. This means that high preload is required for high-performance applications such as solar cells, photovoltaics and energy-saving computers.
Silicon crystals contain fewer free electrons than germanium crystals at room temperature, and this is why the modern trend towards silicon semiconductors is going. The disadvantages of silicon have been eclipsed by the other advantages over silicon mentioned above. So why is silicon g - germanium preferred and why are silicon and g germanium both preferred?
The variation of the collector cross-section temperature is lower in silicon than in germanium. This means that silicon has a much smaller collector and thus a higher power output.
The structure of germanium crystals is destroyed at high temperatures, but silicon crystals are not easily damaged by excess heat. The peak voltage values of silicon diodes are greater than those of germanium diodes. Silicon is also cheaper due to the greater abundance of the element and its lower electricity consumption.
There is a lot of sand in nature, and sand is one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust and a good source of energy.
The first transistors were made with germanium (Ge) and the potential barrier of silicon is greater than that of g germanium. After considering all the advantages listed above, we can conclude that silicon was the best element for semiconductor devices and applications. But what disadvantages does silicon have compared to germ and what advantages does it have compared to silicon?
We demonstrated the first silicon germanium transistor, which operates at frequencies up to 500 GHz. Our invention refers to so-called band transistors and includes a heterojunction field - effect transistors made of silicon, germanium, silicon and carbon alloys. The present invention relates to a semiconductor device structure made of a silicon-based channel layer and consisting of a silicon carbon alloy with a carbon layer and a single silicon layer. We have linked our invention to the development of the so-called "Band Engineered Transistor" (BTR) and its application in the field of field effect transistors. [Sources: 1, 3]
A mixture of germanium and silicon is placed next to a layer of pure silicon, which causes the silicon atoms to stretch and align with the g-germanium atoms. This is called electron mobility, and although the electrons in silicon are quite mobile, they are much more so in the presence of arsenic. The arsenic-doped silicon can be called "N-type silicon" because it adds electrons to generate an electric current when a voltage is applied to the diode. While the silicon particles move from one layer to another in a very short time, this is called "electron mobility," and while the electron in silicon is quite "mobile," it moves much faster in front of the diodes. [Sources: 6, 9, 11]
Silicon has been successfully researched to replace or work with it, and it works well in a variety of applications, such as solar cells, solar panels, batteries and other electronic devices. [Sources: 8]
A MOSCAP-based silicon photonics modulator is a device so-called because it is the first of its kind in the world to consist of a silicon-germanium photonics module with high performance and low power consumption. In  we show that the substrate can be made of silicon and the resulting germanium, as well as a combination of the two materials. [Sources: 2]
Silicon is much harder to process than germanium and offers great prospects for better performance, especially in changing applications. One of the reasons why silicon was selected for the MOSCAP photonics modulator in the first place over g germanium is that silicon works at a higher temperature, while the bond between electrons in silicon is stronger than in gGermanium. Fluctuations in collector separation of electricity and temperature are also lower than in Germania, and silicon offers a great prospect for better performance, especially in switching applications. [Sources: 4, 8, 13]
Silicon also has a major advantage: The native oxide silicon dioxide forms a stable and easy to form stable, easy to form and stable thin film. Silicon and g germanium thin films can easily be up to 1 mm or up to 2 mm thick, so the gains in silicon transistors are much greater than in gGermanium devices with the same number of electrodes. N-type when the material is amorphous, which promotes saturation and reduces the amount of power that is kept constant for other factors. With the current required for a GST-2 device, both the silicon and Germania devices can be with identical surface area of the transistor, the efficiency increases by a factor of 1.5. [Sources: 0, 5, 7, 14]
The main difference between g-germanium and silicon diodes is the voltage at which electric current flows freely through the diode. If you are a PNP or NPN transistor, the VBE of the small gGermanium circuit is about 0.3 volts, which is much less than that of a silicon transistor, while the silicon is about 0.7 volts. Silicon diodes require more voltage to conduct a current, and it takes between 0 and 7 volts to produce a forward and forward tilt in silicon diodes, but the primary differences between silicon and g-germanium diodes are in the voltages required for the diode to switch on and forward. [Sources: 0, 9]
The MAX2641 silicon germanium provides a silicon bipolar lna that falls below NF at frequencies approaching the 2GHz limit, while the gGermanium does not. [Sources: 14]
Germanium sounds a bit different from silicon in a certain circuit, but it is also worth noting that many excellent-sounding pedals use silicon components. It is much cheaper to create circuits from silicon than with other semiconductors, because silicon is not the only semiconductor material that exists. The electron hole mobility of silicon was very low and constitutes an obstacle to high performance, although manufacturers have increased it by incorporating germanium into silicon. This could also change with the 1S130 silicon diode, which has been in use for several years. [Sources: 0, 10, 11, 13]
Both silicon and germanium can overcome this deficiency by proposing a more efficient method of measuring power density and a higher mobility of electron holes than silicon. [Sources: 5]
In simulations, Saraswats group has shown that germanium transistors are significantly better than silicon in the nanometer range. In just a few years, g Germanium will be a serious player in the semiconductor sector. The future of electronics is bright and it is largely silicon-based, but silicon comes in many different flavors and its performance differs from one to the other in terms of power, power density and efficiency. But the future of electronics is brighter, and it is largely silicon-based, but silicon is available in many different flavors, and its performance varies from one of the world's most important semiconductor companies, Intel, which has been heavily involved in the development of silicon technology. [Sources: 11, 12]