Zinc Oxide Wafers (ZnO) for Research & Production

university wafer substrates

What are Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Wafers Made From?

ZnO wafers are made from polyimide. Polyimide is a semiconductor that has the similar electrical and thermal properties of silver, tin, copper, or gold. A positive charge is imparted to the wafer through its wafer coating. When the wafer is exposed to an electric field, electrons recombine with the atoms in the wafer, creating energy in the form of a motion wave. The motion of the wave then excites atoms in the wafer, making them produce photons. The transmitted light strikes the ZnO wafer, which then converts the light into energy.

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ZnO Wafer Uses

  • GaN epitaxial growth
  • UV detectors
  • Power devices
  • Light-emitting devices
  • Photovoltaic
  • Sensors

Zinc Oxide Substrate Availability

ZnO (0001) 5x5x0.5mm, O-face SSP - ZOZ050505SO

Ga:ZnO (0001) N+ type, Ga doped, 10x10x0.5mm, SSP Zn face polished

High purity 99.99% Aluminium oxide (AL2O3) target, 2" dia. x 2mm - EQ-TGT-AL2O3

High purity Zinc Oxide (ZnO) target, 1" dia. x 5mm - EQ-TGT-ZNO-1

ZnO (0001) 1/4"x1/4"x0.5mm,SSP

ZnO (0001) 10x10x0.5mm, SSP Zn-Face Polished

ZnO (0001) 5x5x0.2mm, DSP

ZnO (0001) 5x5x0.5mm, SSP Zn face polished

ZnO (0001) 5x5x0.5mm, DSP

ITO/ZnO Coated Glass Substrate 1" x 1" x 0.7 mm, ITO Film=100nm, ZnO film=50nm

ZnO (0001) 10x10x0.2 mm, SSP O-face polished

ZnO (0001) 10x10x0.5mm, SSP O-Face Polished

ZnO (0001) 10x10x0.5mm, DSP

ZnO (0001) 10x10x1.0 mm, SSP O-face polished

ZnO (0001) 10x10x1.0 mm, SSP Zn-face polished

ZnO (1-100) M-plane 5x5x0.5mm, SSP

ZnO (11-20) A-plane 5x5x0.5mm, SSP

ZnO Ceramic Substrate 10x10x2.0 mm ,Fine ground

ZnO(100nm) on Fused Silica 10x10x0.5mm

ZnO(150nm) Coated Soda lime Glass 1" x1"x 0.7mm

ZnO(50nm) on Fused Silca 10x10x0.5mm

ZnO (1-100) M-plane 5x5x0.5mm, DSP

ZnO (11-20) A-plane 5x5x0.5mm, DSP

ZnO (11-20) A-plane 10x10x0.5mm, SSP

ZnO (11-20) A-plane 10x10x1.0mm, SSP

ZnO (11-20) A-plane 10x10x1.0mm, DSP

ZnO (1-100) M-plane 10x10x0.5mm, SSP

ZnO (11-20) A-plane 10x10x0.5mm, DSP

ZnO (1-100) M-plane 10x10x0.5mm, DSP

ZnO (0001) 10x10x1.0 mm, DSP

ZnO Film (0.5 um) on Sapphire (0001), 10x10x0.5mm,SSP , undoped

ZnO Film (0.5 um) on Sapphire (0001), 5x5x0.5mm ,SSP, undoped

ZnO Film on Sapphire(0001), 2"x0.5mm, undoped , ZnO: 0.5 um

ZnO (0001) 2" dia. x0.5mm, double side polished (Zn-face epi polished)

ZnO Target, 99.99%, 2'' Dia x 0.125'' with copper backing plate

ZnO Target, 99.99%, 2" Dia x 0.125'' with copper backing & cladding plate

100 g ZnO (99%, 20-30 nm) Nanopowder

ZnO Target, >99.99% 2" Dia x 0.25" thickness ceramic


What are Some ZnO Wafer Applications?

ZnO Wafer Application is a novel invention in the field of photovoltaic applications. ZnO Wafer is an active material used in solar cells for use in solar panels. The material is made up of a solid layer of wafers deposited with substances called N-type silicon (N-type refers to positively charged) and mixed with an organic base. Photovoltaic cells are fabricated on these wafers by using a process called lamination. 10mm x 10mm zinc oxide (zno) waferPhotovoltaic cells are known as solar cells or photovoltaic devices (PVDF) based on their design. A ZnO wafer is a thin, rectangular sheet of wafer-type materials. These sheets are coated with phosphor and the base used to create the devices is silicon (usually silicon semiconductor material). Common devices include cell phones (handheld phones), laptop computers, flat screen TVs, barcode scanners, global positioning systems, microwave ovens, and wrist watch technology.

The electrical current produced by PVDFs is in the form of direct current (DC) using positive and negative electrodes. To change the DC current into alternating current (AC), an internal bimetal switch referred to as an excimer junction is used. Photovoltaic cells are designed to trap the incoming electrical charge and change it into AC using a photovoltaic exciton. The electrical conductivity of a PVDF is determined by its lattice size. Lattice size refers to the distance between two crystals that forms the basis of the cell.

There are three main types of PVDF components. They are the flat plate, the wafer material, and the epitaxial growth. Each of these components have their own advantages and disadvantages depending on their application.

Flat plate solar cells are the most common PVDFs used in residential applications. They consist of a large rectangular box-like structure filled with a substrate containing holes or stripes of silicon crystals. Silicon crystals vary in size depending on their concentration in the wafer material. PV flat panels can be rolled up like a newspaper to fit in tight spaces.

Flat plate cells are flexible but less durable than other types of cells. This makes them more suitable for use as roofing shingles or decorative panels. Since they are flexible, they can also be used as flexible solar cells in electronic devices. As a result, flat panels are used as panels on boats, ski boards, and RV generators.

Flat panels are the epitaxial form of PVDF. It has larger surface area than the flat plates. The silicon crystals used in epitaxial flat plates are manufactured to grow in thin layers. This makes it thicker and more durable than flat plates. By growing the silicon crystals in thin layers, epitaxial flat panels can resist extreme temperatures.

A ZnO solar cell is made up of two copper polyimide layers coupled with indium aluminum oxide. These two layers are separated by a thin metal plate called the passivation layer. The low-emissive ZnO flat plates allow only small sized particles to pass through, which makes it ideal for solar cell applications. When the light strikes the surface area of the ZnO wafer, the electric field excites the atoms in the wafer, creating photons that are absorbed by the indium aluminum oxide layer.

Because the transmitted light is so narrow, the electrical current produced is very small. This enables ZnO wafers to be used in place of standard PV cells in applications where the power conversion efficiency is not as important, such as satellites and communication devices. Because the wafers can be used to reflect and send varying amounts of sunlight, they are also suitable for applications where changing the amount of sunlight falling on the device is not feasible, as is the case for hot water heating systems and outdoor lamps.

Znole wafers are made from high quality materials, such as ZnO, which have been specifically engineered for flexibility and durability. In addition, the wafer thickness is not as important as it might be. In the past, wafers that were too thick resulted in distortion that prevented the transmission of electricity, but with the new generation of flat plates, this problem is eliminated. Instead of being so thick, these plates are just slightly thicker than the traditional PV flat plates. Because the transmission of electricity through the wafer is so efficient, you will see your electric bills decrease significantly.

Video: Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Wafers

ZnO Substrates

We have a large selection of ZnO Wafers. Many researchers use our ZnO for piezoelectric research including scavaging microcantilever energy.

Recent Zinc Oxide (ZnO) wafer sales: 

  • ZnO (0001) 5x5x0.5mm, O-face SSP
  • ZnO (0001) 10x10x0.5mm, SSP
  • Zn-Face Polished ZnO (11-20) A-plane 5x5x0.5mm, DSP
  • ZnO (11-20) A-plane 10x10x0.5mm, SSP
  • ZnO (1-100) M-plane 10x10x0.5mm, SSP
  • ZnO Epi Film on Sapphire(0001), 2"x0.5mm, undoped , ZnO: 0.5 um
  • ZnO single crystal substrates Orientation (0001) with orientation accuracy< 0.5deg Edge are oriented (11-20) ± 1 deg Size: 25.4x25.4mm (+/-0.10mm) Thickness:1mm (+/-0.05mm) Surface Roughness: Ra <1.0 nm One side epi-polished One Zn-Face (0001) and one O-Face (000-1), please select.

Raman Spectroscopy, Morphology, and Photocatalytic Activity of Polycrystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Wafers

In this article, we will discuss the Raman spectroscopy, Morphology, and Photocatalytic activity of polycrystalline ZnO. We will also cover the important properties of this material, as well as its possible applications in the solar energy storage industries. Besides, you will get to learn about the Raman mode of this material. Let us look at the structure of polycrystalline ZnO. The spectra of polycrystalline ZnO are remarkably different from those of bulk ZnO.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Provided the Wafers for this Research.

Films deposited on Si by r.f. magnetron sputtering and ZnO single crystals with a (0 0 0 1) surface (University wafer Inc.), using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. TiN and Sb rods (>99.9% purity) were chosen...

Polycrystalline ZnO Raman Spectroscopy

A thin film of polycrystalline ZnO of 5 mm thickness is sufficient to map individual crystal facets. Thin films of less than this thickness are also viable as a method for mapping crystal facets. However, these methods require an instrument with z-resolution of less than one micron. To solve this problem, the authors used the Raman spectroscopy technique of thin films.

The method used to determine the mode of polarized light has two distinct modes: A1 mode and E1 mode. Both are polar modes and are split into longitudinal and transverse components. Raman spectroscopy can discriminate these modes in two directions, and the selection rule depends on the crystal orientation and light polarization. In Fig. 4, the difference between the A1 and E1 modes is evident. In contrast, the E2 mode was the dominant mode in growth-plane measurements.

The proposed approach can be used to characterize various ZnO samples of any size. Its spatial resolution can be extended to sub-micrometer domains. The vertical spatial resolution of the Raman spectrometer is more than 2 mm, allowing spectral analysis of thin layers without interference from the substrate. Several approaches are available for extending the range of the method to smaller dimensions, the most obvious one being to reduce the Abbe diffraction limit.

What is Polycrystalline Zinc Oxide Morphology?

Several recent studies have focused on the morphology of polycrystalline zinc oxide. In the Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, Ramalho and colleagues reviewed the morphology of ZnO particulates. Moreover, Ramalho, Jiang W, and Mashayekhi studied the toxicity of nano and micro-sized oxide particles. The study has revealed that ZnO particles can be toxic in the presence of certain chemicals.

The spectroscopic characterization of ZnO has uncovered the structure of the d10 configuration of the metal atoms. This is the first example of an edge change in a Zn-oxidation-state-dependent material, and it has been interpreted as an indication of the presence of a defect-related DOS. However, the transient spectrum of polycrystalline ZnO shows a wide range of changes at the absorption edge and above it. In addition, the transient spectrum has no discernible edge-shift, suggesting that the Zn atoms' effective nuclear charge is not changed significantly after photoexcitation. Further, the d10 configuration implies that electrons remain largely delocalized in the CB.

Recent studies of ZnO nanowires have revealed their morphology-dependent Raman scattering. This study also identified the factors that affect the morphology transition of polycrystalline ZnO films. Other researches have explored how the morphology of these films changes during processing. According to the study, DMZn flow rate has a major influence on the morphology transition of ZnO films.

Polycrystalline ZnO Raman Mode

In this paper, we describe a method to investigate the polarization dependence of polycrystalline ZnO by using Raman spectroscopy. The method can be used to investigate ZnO with different degrees of polarization and identify the modes responsible for the polarization dependence. The polarization dependence is highly significant in ZnO, so we have applied a method that separates the polar and non-polar modes.

A new method was developed to determine the crystal orientation by using polarized and nonpolarized Raman spectra. Using this method, it is possible to determine the orientation of the crystal planes and exposed facets by analyzing the peaks in the Raman spectrum. The method can be applied to nanomaterials and microstructures. The researchers note that this method is a versatile technique that is suitable for crystals with a variety of orientations.

The ferromagnetic order in polycrystalline ZnO is directly related to the broadening of the Raman mode. X-ray spectroscopy measurements have shown that annealed samples show more red fluorescence, which is correlated to strongly oxidized samples. The red emission is caused by electron transitions from surface states to the valence state of the inner layer of the crystalline grain. This process may be related to the generation of defects during the agglomeration process.

Polycrystalline ZnO Photocatalytic activity

Polycrystalline ZnO exhibits good photocatalytic activity and can be used for the degradation of a variety of pollutants. Recent research in this field has focused on the use of these nanoparticles as photocatalysts. Several researchers have reported their findings in the Indian Journal of Physics. Here, we look at three recent examples of polycrystalline ZnO for photocatalytic activities.

A mechanochemical method was used to prepare the composite from ZnO and SnO2 flakes. The combined catalysts showed superior photocatalytic activity when compared with pure ZnO and SnO alone. The composites showed significantly higher photocatalytic activity than either individual component alone. Further, we will discuss the use of these composites in photocatalytic applications.

XRD pattern of ZnO nanoparticles revealed that Cu2+ substitution caused a reduction of crystallite size, a rise in dislocation density, and an increase in pore volume. These changes suggest that CuO has a more effective photocatalytic activity than ZnO alone. In addition, the Cu2+ substitution induced anisotropic development of the grain structure.

Polycrystalline ZnO Antibacterial Activity

The antibacterial activity of polycrystalline ZnO nanoparticles is enhanced by their size. Nanoparticles of ZnO have a large surface area compared to their volume, resulting in greater bioactivity. Nanoparticles are more abrasive than bulk ZnO, contributing to the enhanced bactericidal effect. The larger surface area allows for higher number of active oxygen species.

This study also shows that 6 at.% Al-doped ZnO films display a high antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The films also show a high potential to reduce bacterial growth in the presence of UV light. Furthermore, the bacterial inhibition zone of polycrystalline ZnO increases with increasing dopant concentration. Antibacterial activity of polycrystalline ZnO is highly dependent on the morphological and structural properties.

A number of studies on the antibacterial activity of polycrystalline ZnO were conducted to evaluate its efficacy against bacteria. Bacterial cell membranes were examined using the disk diffusion method, which was performed using suspensions of ZnO of different particle sizes. The inhibition zone of bacteria tended to increase as the particle size decreased, which indicated that ZnO was disrupting the bacterial cell membranes.

Polycrystalline ZnO Preparation

The preparation of polycrystalline ZnO has several advantages. It has a low defect rate and a large volume. The method described here does not have any of the defects associated with PVT. Thus, it can be used for manufacturing ZnO monocrystals. It can be a useful material in microelectronics. This article will discuss its advantages. The next section provides additional details on the preparation of polycrystalline ZnO.

Four different methods have been used to prepare polycrystalline ZnO/TiO2 solids. In the first method, Zn(NO3)2*6H2O was used as the precursor. The resulting films were then processed to produce polycrystalline ZnO films. The final products were characterized using XPS techniques. The resulting samples have a low surface roughness. However, high-resolution micrographs show distinct grains on the surface. The thickness and size of the grains decrease with increasing ZnO concentrations.

XPS analysis of the samples shows that the films at 150degC are polycrystalline, with crystallite sizes decreasing from 27 nm to 21 nm. The temperature of the samples determines the preferred crystal growth mode. At 150degC, crystal growth is in the (002) plane, while at higher temperatures, it takes place in the (100) plane. The films were oxygen-deficient.

Polycrystalline ZnO Characterization

The present study describes the characterization of polycrystalline ZnO films. These films exhibit columnar structure and polycrystalline nature. Electrochemical methods were used to characterize the layer. SEM micrographs of etched layers revealed the columnar structure of ZnO. The measured grain size agreed with those calculated indirectly. In addition, the films are highly suited for gas sensors. However, further study is necessary for understanding the properties of polycrystalline ZnO films.

In the study of ZnO films, a buffer layer of AlN was deposited between the film and the Si substrate. The AlN layer reduced the number of edge dislocations and stacking faults. The PL peaks in both films were similar to those observed in the two samples. The results showed that AlN buffer layer can improve the quality of the films. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of AlN buffer layer in polycrystalline ZnO films.

To understand the ZnO/Si heterojunction, the atomic band gap of the two materials must be understood. Understanding the energy band alignment, the microstructure and the interfacial chemistry of these materials is necessary. Various dielectric buffer layers have been used, including Al2O3 between Si and ZnO. These materials are more efficient at conducting electricity. This study suggests that AlN buffer layer could improve the properties of ZnO/Si heterojunction.