III-V Substrates for University Student Researchers

university wafer substrates

We Have the Following III-V Wafers in Stock GaAs, GaSb, GaP, InAs, InSb

A bioengineering Ph.D candidate requested a quote for the following:

My research group is planning to buy III-V semiconducting wafers. I have few question about doping level of these wafers. For each III-V semiconductor, such as GaAs, GaP, GaSb, InP and InAs, what are the carrier concentrations for undoped, n-type and p-type wafers? What are the resistivity? For high performance Field Effect Transistor (FET), what is the optimized carrier concentration range for each wafer?

Click here or reference #253368 for specs and pricing.

III-V semiconductors are great for optoelectronic use. III-V crystallize with high degree of stoichiometry.

We have both n-type and p-type. Our III-V wafers have high carrier mobilities and direct energy gaps.

Get Your III-V Quote FAST! Or, Buy Online and Start Researching Today!


III-V Substrates Vs Silicon

A PhD Student studying applied materials requested help with the following:

I would like to know what options you have for wafers that does not
contain silicon. The wafers should be crystalline and have a diameter of
3''. I would like to know what materials you have, the dimensions of the
samples and the price.

What we want to do is coat the wafers with a silicon nitride coating. The coating will have compositional gradients and what we want to look at is the dissolution of the coating. So basically we just want a flat substrate for the coatings but during the dissolution study we don't want any elements from the substrate (wafer) to interfere with the coating. Dissolution study means we will submerge the entire sample in a protein solution and look at how fast it dissolves (with VSI/profilometer) and what comes out (ICP). This means we want to minimize the content of silicon, nitrogen, niobium and chromium (the two latter will likely be added as doping materials to the coatings). We also want something that is easy to crack in a controlled way to divide the wafer into smaller parts. Do you have any recommendations based on that description?

We would like around 50 wafers of something that doesn't contain any silicon. I've looked at your website and GaAs, GaP, InAs, and InP seems to be available in 3 inch wafers and have about 0.4-0.6 mm thickness. What would the cost be to order 50 wafers of either of the above mentioned wafer materials? And am I correct in assuming that they don't contain any silicon?

UniversityWafer, Inc. Replied:

If you describe how you are trying to use the wafers than perhaps I can advise you about what is suitable.

Silicon wafer are relatively fragile but they can be polished very well and the material is phenomenally pure {common CZ silicon wafers with Ro>1 Ohmcm, are 99.9979% Silicon; 0.00020% Oxygen; Carbon, Boron, Phosphorus make up the remaining 1ppm}. Nothing else, in its price range, can match this purity.

What wafers contain no Silicon? That depends if you mean <1% Si element, or <0.01% or <1ppma.

All III-V semiconductors (GaAs, GaP, GaSb InAs, InP, InSb), unless explicity doped with Silicon, are likely to contain <20ppm of Silicon. If they are crystallized in pyrolytic Boron Nitride rather than Quartz crucibles, then they can contain <1ppm of Si. These materials are much more expensive and even more fragile than Silicon.
Germanium is likely to contain even more Si than III-V semiconductors and it is just as expensive and just as fragile.
Almost all glass wafers contain significant amount of Silicon element

Commercial Sapphire wafers are by far the strongest and most heat and scratch resistant. Their surface roughness and geometric properties are as good as those of Silicon wafers.They are 99.99% or 99.995% pure Al2O3. Their Silicon content is likely <10ppm. They can be used at very high temperatures, like 1,000°C. They cost less than Ge or III-V semiconductors.

Your other choices are hydrocarbon polymer wafers, specifically polyimide polymer wafers Acrylic polymer wafers are also made and used. We do not deal in polymer wafers.

Reference #227334 for specs and pricing.

What are III-V wafers used for?

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

Second most common in use after silicon, commonly used as substrate for other III-V semiconductors, e.g. InGaAs and GaInNAs. Brittle. Lower hole mobility than Silicon, P-type CMOS transistors unfeasible. High impurity density, difficult to fabricate small structures. Used for near-IR LEDs, fast electronics, and high-efficiency solar cells. Very similar lattice constant to germanium, can be grown on germanium substrates.

Gallium Animonide (GaSb)

Used for infrared detectors and LEDs and thermophotovoltaics. Doped n with Te, p with Zn.

Indium Phosphide (InP)

Commonly used as substrate for epitaxial InGaAs. Superior electron veloxity, used in high-power and high-frequency applications. Used in optoelectronics.

Indium Arsenide (InAs)

Used for infrared detectors for 1â€"3.8 µm, cooled or uncooled. High electron mobility. InAs dots in InGaAs matrix can serve as quantum dots. Quantum dots may be formed from a monolayer of InAs on InP or GaAs. Strong photo-Denber emitter, used as a terahertz radiation source.

Wafers in Stock

Video: III-V Wafers



Customized III-V Substrates to Develop 3D Structures

A PhD student requested the following quote:

I wonder if you could customized the III-V materials on wafer? We have a project aiming to develop a 3D structure of III-V materials requiring two layers of III-V materials, each layer is around 20 nm thick and one is in highly compression stress and the other is tensile stress.

I am wondering if you have calibrated-stress data available for the material composition you mentioned? since we have to focus on the thin film stress first then the composition, doping levels..

UniversityWafer, Inc quoted:

YES, we do such structures by MOCVD on 2"Ø and 3"Ø wafers. We can deposit Al, Ga, In and P, As, Sb, also N. Please specify the composition, thickness and doping level of the substrate and each of the layers. Specify how many such wafers will you need.

One starts with a monocrystalline substrate. Depending on which material you use, it has a specific lattice spacing. When you deposit an Epitaxial film of a material with a different lattice spacing, here builds up a stress in the film, either compressive or tensile. One can adjust lattice mismatch by adjusting the composition of the deposited layer.

For example, on InP substrate one can deposit In(0.53)Ga(0,47)As. This composition of In, Ga, As has lattice spacing that matches that of InP and there is no stress in the deposited layer. If I deposit In(0.58)Ga(0.42)As, its lattice constant is larger and the film is under compressive stress. If I deposit In(0.48)Ga(0.52), its lattice constant is smaller, so the film is in tension. The magnitude of the stress depends on the difference in lattice constants, on film thickness and the elasticity of the atomic bonds involved. Measurement of peak Photoluminescence wavelength indicates the magnitude of the stress.

Lattice constants are well tabulated for various III-V compounds (see Wikipedia under "Lattice constant"). However, I do not know of such tabulation of stress levels, perhaps because there are many factors involved. I am not an expert in this field, perhaps others know more on this topic.

We can deposit any combination of the elements that I listed on any of the commonly used III-V substrates. We can deposit many thin layers. We can measure lattice deformations (strain) by measuring Photoluminescence and with X-Ray diffraction. We are not design the structures.

YES, you are right that doping levels do not have a material effect on Lattice constants and on stress within the layers.

Reference 215838 for specs and pricing.

What Is a III-V Semiconductor?

In order to create a III-V semiconductor, a material needs to contain at least three elements from columns III iii-v semiconductor wafersand V. In this case, the elements should be gallium, indium, and arsenic. The third- and fifth-column elements contribute three and five electrons respectively. However, the fourth- and sixth-column element must contribute two or three electrons.

The study of semiconductor alloys consists of first principles and fundamental concepts of physics. The primary focus of the study is on spatial localization of electronic states. Isovalent impurities in the host GaAs can influence photoluminescence linewidths and carrier mobilities. Extremity of localization at the band edges is related to the ability of the material to alter the band gap and relative band alignment. Substitutional defects are related to the formability and growth challenges.

In semiconductor devices, group III-V compounds include silicon and germanium. These semiconductors are composed of two or more elements from groups III and V of the periodic table. In addition to GaAs, III-V semiconductors also include indium nitride and gallium-arsenide. Further research into indium nitride is underway. A similar process is currently in use to dope InN with Mg.

A semiconductor is a material which can function as an electrical conductor and an insulator. These materials are in the group III and V of the periodic table and are used to make electronic and optoelectronic devices. These devices are made of a combination of different elements and can be operated at high frequencies. For this reason, these compounds are often found in electronics and are considered a perfect match for LEDs.

A III-V semiconductor is an alloy of the elements in groups III and V of the periodic table. The most common of these is Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), while in the group IV, nitride semiconductors are a subset of GaAs. The research conducted at Warwick, UK, reveals that there are many different types of these materials. It is a versatile material with a wide range of applications.

IQE is a manufacturer of a variety of substrates made of the group III-V semiconductors. These are typically made through Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) and Czochralski growth processes. Using these materials in this manner allows them to control the flow of electrical current with a small voltage or physical stimulus. As a result, the semiconductors are widely used in electronics.

A semiconductor is a compound of elements in groups III and V of the periodic table. Its name means "group III semiconductor." A common semiconductor is GaAs, a compound of two elements: indium and gallium. The IQE product family includes Gallium Arsenide and Indium Phosphide. These components can be used in electronic devices and bulk polycrystalline feedstock.

A semiconductor is an element that has both electrical conductivity and induction. This means that it can be used to transmit light or detect a signal. It is composed of four different elements: indium and gallium. Indium has three valence electrons. Indium is an indium nitride. The latter has five electrons. Its isomer of indium.

A III-V semiconductor is a material composed of gallium and nitride. Both elements possess three valence electrons. This type of semiconductor is used in high-power applications, such as microwave amplifiers, because it has high electron mobility. Its properties make it an excellent choice for high-voltage and ultrahigh-frequency electronic devices. It is also useful in other industries, including solar cells and ink.

In contrast to semiconductors, Iii-Vs are materials formed from elements from column III and column V of the periodic table. They contain a wide range of electrical and optical properties, and their chemical structure is essential for electronic devices. This range of materials is a key component in the manufacturing of modern electronics. In fact, all four of these elements are important for modern day technology. These materials are made from carbon and graphene.

The iii-v semiconductors are a versatile type of electronic device that uses III-N materials. The NDR is a highly useful semiconductor and is often used in high-speed computers. Its Negative Differential Resistance, also known as NDR, is another interesting property of the III-N semiconductor. While the NDRs are not completely reliable, the peak-to-peak current ratio indicates that they are not a perfect semiconductor.

What are III-V Substrates Carrier Concentration Ranges?

The following is a table of doping levels of III-V Compound Semiconductors that we carry. Let us know if you have any questions?

Doping of III-V Compound Semiconductors

  Undoped Doped n-type Doped p-type Semi-Insulating
    type Nc Mobility   Nc Mobility   Nc Mobility   Ro Mobility
(a/cm³) cm²/Vs (a/cm³) cm²/Vs (a/cm³) cm²/Vs Ohmcm cm²/Vs
GaAs GaAs:- n 1E7-3E8 6,000 - 3,000 GaAs:Si 1E16-4E18 3,000-1,000 GaAs:Zn 1E16-4E19 210-50 GaAs:Cr 1E7-1E9 2,000-4,500
GaP GaP:- n 1E12-3E16 170 - 140 GaP:S 3E17-8E18 140-100 GaP:Zn 6E17-6E18 66-56 GaP:- 1E7-1E12 140-160
GaSb GaSb:- p 1E16-2E17 3,000 - 600 GaSb:Te 5E16-5E18 3,500-2,000 GaSb:Zn 1E18-7E18 500-275      
InAs InAs:- n 2E16-6E16 25,000-21,000 InAs:S 5E17-2E19 14,800-6,000 InAs:Zn 1E18-4E19 155-96      
InP InP:- n 5E14-3E16 4,500-1,700 InP:S 3E18-9E18 1,600-1,000 InP:Zn 4E18-6E18 60-50 InP:Fe 1E7-9E7 1,700-3,200
InSb InSb:- n 1E14-5E14 500,000-350,000 InSb:Te 1E15-2E18 200,000-24,000 InSb:Ge 1E15-5E17 70,000-4,000      
  Note: InSb parameters measured at 77ºK, all others at 300ºK
  Note: Undoped GaAs:- is normally Semi-Insulating, ultra-pure GaP is Semi-Insulating, none of the others are.
  Note: Mobility is that of Majority Charge Carriers; p-type Mobility is Hole Mobility, all others are Electron Mobility
  Note: 1/Ro=Nc × u × e
    Ro is Resistivity in Ohmcm
    Nc is Charge Carrier Density in charge carriers per cm³
    u is Mobility in cm²/(Volt × Second) or (cm/Second)/(Volt/cm)
    e is Electric Charge of a Charge Carrier in Coulombs per Electron = 1.6021E-19

I do not know what concentration ranges are best for high performance FET devices.

I expect that high charge carrier mobility is key to high speed switching and that tends to be highest when electron conduction predominates but at lowest concentration.

I expect that power handing is best at high dopant concentrations.

Most devices strive for balance between these requirements.