III-V Substrates for University Student Researchers

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A bioengineering Ph.D candidate requested a quote for the following:

My research group is planning to buy III-V semiconducting wafers. I have few question about doping level of these wafers. For each III-V semiconductor, such as GaAs, GaP, GaSb, InP and InAs, what are the carrier concentrations for undoped, n-type and p-type wafers? What are the resistivity? For high performance Field Effect Transistor (FET), what is the optimized carrier concentration range for each wafer?

Click here or reference #253368 for specs and pricing.

III-V semiconductors are great for optoelectronic use. III-V crystallize with high degree of stoichiometry.

We have both n-type and p-type. Our III-V wafers have high carrier mobilities and direct energy gaps.

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What are III-V wafers used for?

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

Second most common in use after silicon, commonly used as substrate for other III-V semiconductors, e.g. InGaAs and GaInNAs. Brittle. Lower hole mobility than Silicon, P-type CMOS transistors unfeasible. High impurity density, difficult to fabricate small structures. Used for near-IR LEDs, fast electronics, and high-efficiency solar cells. Very similar lattice constant to germanium, can be grown on germanium substrates.

Gallium Animonide (GaSb)

Used for infrared detectors and LEDs and thermophotovoltaics. Doped n with Te, p with Zn.

Indium Phosphide (InP)

Commonly used as substrate for epitaxial InGaAs. Superior electron veloxity, used in high-power and high-frequency applications. Used in optoelectronics.

Indium Arsenide (InAs)

Used for infrared detectors for 1â€"3.8 µm, cooled or uncooled. High electron mobility. InAs dots in InGaAs matrix can serve as quantum dots. Quantum dots may be formed from a monolayer of InAs on InP or GaAs. Strong photo-Denber emitter, used as a terahertz radiation source.

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What Is a III-V Semiconductor?

In order to create a III-V semiconductor, a material needs to contain at least three elements from columns III iii-v semiconductor wafersand V. In this case, the elements should be gallium, indium, and arsenic. The third- and fifth-column elements contribute three and five electrons respectively. However, the fourth- and sixth-column element must contribute two or three electrons.

The study of semiconductor alloys consists of first principles and fundamental concepts of physics. The primary focus of the study is on spatial localization of electronic states. Isovalent impurities in the host GaAs can influence photoluminescence linewidths and carrier mobilities. Extremity of localization at the band edges is related to the ability of the material to alter the band gap and relative band alignment. Substitutional defects are related to the formability and growth challenges.

In semiconductor devices, group III-V compounds include silicon and germanium. These semiconductors are composed of two or more elements from groups III and V of the periodic table. In addition to GaAs, III-V semiconductors also include indium nitride and gallium-arsenide. Further research into indium nitride is underway. A similar process is currently in use to dope InN with Mg.

A semiconductor is a material which can function as an electrical conductor and an insulator. These materials are in the group III and V of the periodic table and are used to make electronic and optoelectronic devices. These devices are made of a combination of different elements and can be operated at high frequencies. For this reason, these compounds are often found in electronics and are considered a perfect match for LEDs.

A III-V semiconductor is an alloy of the elements in groups III and V of the periodic table. The most common of these is Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), while in the group IV, nitride semiconductors are a subset of GaAs. The research conducted at Warwick, UK, reveals that there are many different types of these materials. It is a versatile material with a wide range of applications.

IQE is a manufacturer of a variety of substrates made of the group III-V semiconductors. These are typically made through Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) and Czochralski growth processes. Using these materials in this manner allows them to control the flow of electrical current with a small voltage or physical stimulus. As a result, the semiconductors are widely used in electronics.

A semiconductor is a compound of elements in groups III and V of the periodic table. Its name means "group III semiconductor." A common semiconductor is GaAs, a compound of two elements: indium and gallium. The IQE product family includes Gallium Arsenide and Indium Phosphide. These components can be used in electronic devices and bulk polycrystalline feedstock.

A semiconductor is an element that has both electrical conductivity and induction. This means that it can be used to transmit light or detect a signal. It is composed of four different elements: indium and gallium. Indium has three valence electrons. Indium is an indium nitride. The latter has five electrons. Its isomer of indium.

A III-V semiconductor is a material composed of gallium and nitride. Both elements possess three valence electrons. This type of semiconductor is used in high-power applications, such as microwave amplifiers, because it has high electron mobility. Its properties make it an excellent choice for high-voltage and ultrahigh-frequency electronic devices. It is also useful in other industries, including solar cells and ink.

In contrast to semiconductors, Iii-Vs are materials formed from elements from column III and column V of the periodic table. They contain a wide range of electrical and optical properties, and their chemical structure is essential for electronic devices. This range of materials is a key component in the manufacturing of modern electronics. In fact, all four of these elements are important for modern day technology. These materials are made from carbon and graphene.

The iii-v semiconductors are a versatile type of electronic device that uses III-N materials. The NDR is a highly useful semiconductor and is often used in high-speed computers. Its Negative Differential Resistance, also known as NDR, is another interesting property of the III-N semiconductor. While the NDRs are not completely reliable, the peak-to-peak current ratio indicates that they are not a perfect semiconductor.

What are III-V Substrates Carrier Concentration Ranges?

The following is a table of doping levels of III-V Compound Semiconductors that we carry. Let us know if you have any questions?

Doping of III-V Compound Semiconductors

  Undoped Doped n-type Doped p-type Semi-Insulating
    type Nc Mobility   Nc Mobility   Nc Mobility   Ro Mobility
(a/cm³) cm²/Vs (a/cm³) cm²/Vs (a/cm³) cm²/Vs Ohmcm cm²/Vs
GaAs GaAs:- n 1E7-3E8 6,000 - 3,000 GaAs:Si 1E16-4E18 3,000-1,000 GaAs:Zn 1E16-4E19 210-50 GaAs:Cr 1E7-1E9 2,000-4,500
GaP GaP:- n 1E12-3E16 170 - 140 GaP:S 3E17-8E18 140-100 GaP:Zn 6E17-6E18 66-56 GaP:- 1E7-1E12 140-160
GaSb GaSb:- p 1E16-2E17 3,000 - 600 GaSb:Te 5E16-5E18 3,500-2,000 GaSb:Zn 1E18-7E18 500-275      
InAs InAs:- n 2E16-6E16 25,000-21,000 InAs:S 5E17-2E19 14,800-6,000 InAs:Zn 1E18-4E19 155-96      
InP InP:- n 5E14-3E16 4,500-1,700 InP:S 3E18-9E18 1,600-1,000 InP:Zn 4E18-6E18 60-50 InP:Fe 1E7-9E7 1,700-3,200
InSb InSb:- n 1E14-5E14 500,000-350,000 InSb:Te 1E15-2E18 200,000-24,000 InSb:Ge 1E15-5E17 70,000-4,000      
  Note: InSb parameters measured at 77ºK, all others at 300ºK
  Note: Undoped GaAs:- is normally Semi-Insulating, ultra-pure GaP is Semi-Insulating, none of the others are.
  Note: Mobility is that of Majority Charge Carriers; p-type Mobility is Hole Mobility, all others are Electron Mobility
  Note: 1/Ro=Nc × u × e
    Ro is Resistivity in Ohmcm
    Nc is Charge Carrier Density in charge carriers per cm³
    u is Mobility in cm²/(Volt × Second) or (cm/Second)/(Volt/cm)
    e is Electric Charge of a Charge Carrier in Coulombs per Electron = 1.6021E-19

I do not know what concentration ranges are best for high performance FET devices.

I expect that high charge carrier mobility is key to high speed switching and that tends to be highest when electron conduction predominates but at lowest concentration.

I expect that power handing is best at high dopant concentrations.

Most devices strive for balance between these requirements.