Czochralsk (CZ) Process Growing of Silicon Wafers

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University Silicon Wafer for Production

The Czochralski Method

The Czochralski method of growing silicon crystals is the cheapest and most common way of making silicon wafers. However, it tends to produce impurities in the silicon, which have a negative effect on the efficiency of solar panels. For higher purity Float Zone (FZ) wafers are used.

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Czochralsk (CZ) and Float Zone (FZ) Grown Silicon Ingots

czochralski growh silicon ingots

CZ and FZ Ingots in Stock 

FZ NTD 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 50-60 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>400μs, (2 ingots: 197mm, 277mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 8"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 163-174 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>14581μs, (1 ingot: 83mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø As-Grown ingot, 153.6mmØ×180mm, p-type Si:B[100]±2.0°, (122-127)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>8,025μs, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-2 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1777μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 600-900 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 74mm) SEMI, 1Flat (57.5mm), made by Xiamen
FZ 6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,736-3,206 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 36mm) SEMI, 1Flat (57.5mm), made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 25.70-26.29 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>2,218μs, (1 ingot: 163mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø×275mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (0.307-0.313)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø×101mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (0.350-0.353)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChem
FZ 6"Ø×124mm n-type Si:P[100], (0.556-0.600)Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø×52mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (23.86-25.05)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=16,352μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 3,605-8,162 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 30mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 40-70 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by SilChm due 6/1/2020
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 4.65-5.11 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>2,000μs, (1 ingot: 22.5mm) 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø×248mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (0.557-0.565)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 5,000-10,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 34.5mm) JEIDA, made by PHTS
FZ 6"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100] ±2.0°, Ro: >65,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1400μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 94mm) NO Flats, made by Xiamen
FZ 5"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,879-3,258 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 172mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 5"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 70-110 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 115mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Topsil
FZ 5"Ø×59mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111], (5,400-7,200)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,200μs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1,034.10-1,853.00 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, (1 ingot: 252mm) NO Flats, made by ATC
FZ 4"Ø×14mm p-type Si:B[100], (2,700-8,300)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110] ±2°, Ro: 2,600-3,800 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 99mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,724-4,388 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1000μs, (1 ingot: 132mm) 1Flat, made by ATC
FZ 4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2.200-2.221 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 350mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø×55mm p-type Si:B[100], (1,000-2,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>700μs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2°, Ro: 1,900-2,300 {1,953-2,265} Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 97mm) 1Flat, made by Gener
FZ 4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110] ±2°, Ro: 1,900-3,600 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 100mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø×210mm p-type Si:B[100] (500-1,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=700μs, Ground, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110] ±2°, Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 41mm) 1Flat, made by Gener
FZ 4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[111] ±0.5°, Ro: 8,220-12,252 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 237mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 10.069-10.255 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 65mm) 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[110] ±2°, Ro: >1 Ohmcm, Ground, 1Flat, made by Gener
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 50-100 Ohmcm, 1Flat, made by SPC
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 346.0-366.8 Ohmcm, , made by SilChm due 5/19/2020
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.94-0.96 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1000μs, (2 ingots: 244mm, 43mm) 1Flat, made by ATC
FZ 4"Ø×38mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] (0.8-2.5) {0.91-2.29}Ohmcm, Lifetime >300μs, Ox<1E16/cc, C<1E16/cc, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: >1,000 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 28mm) 1Flat
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[110] ±2°, Ro:>4,800Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat (47.5mm), T>1,000μs, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø×400mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] (446.9-458.9)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=10,670μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø×374mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, (429.4-453.7)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=11,866μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.0116-0.0121 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 90mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,000-4,000 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 292mm) NO Flats, made by Xiamen
FZ 4"Ø×40mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111], (5,000-13,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,100μs, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 6,100-7,800 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1300μs, (1 ingot: 38mm) 1Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±0.5°, Ro: >1,000 Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 2Flats, made by Gener
FZ 4"Ø×105mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, (1-2)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro:>150,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,700μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 60mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro:>90,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,600μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 140mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1000μs, Ground, (3 ingots: 146mm, 120mm, 120mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±0.5°, Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 41mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±2.0°, Ro: >25,000 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 61mm, 72mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 3"Ø×102mm ingot p-type Si:B[111] ±2°, (4,400-4,600)Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat, made by SPC
FZ 3"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[111] ±0.5°, Ro: 1,000-2,000 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ Ingot 3"Ø×(112+265)mm, p-type Si:B[111] ±2°, (1,800-3,000)Ohmcm, Lifetime>1,000μs, SEMI, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 4.65-5.11 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>2000μs, (1 ingot: 99mm) 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 3"Ø×(129+131+147)mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, (40-60)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 3"Ø×(117+135)mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro>5,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 5,750-6,850 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>6000μs, As-Grown, (3 ingots: 81mm, 124mm, 18mm) 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 2,000-6,000 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 90mm) NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 3"Ø×188mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±0.5°, Ro:>2,000 {2.330-3,300}Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,640μs, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 3"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, Ground, (7 ingots: 69mm, 139mm, 146mm, 148mm, 143mm, 148mm, 215mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 3"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±2.0°, Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1000μs, (2 ingots: 177mm, 172mm) NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 2"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-2 {1.29-1.32} Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1777μs, (2 ingots: 58mm, 84mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 2"Ø×(132+124+124+123+115+107+100+99)mm ingots, p-type Si:B[100] ±2°, (1,000-3,000)Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, made by Pluto
FZ 2"Ø×64.5mm ingot p-type Si:B[100]±2°, (2,879-3,258)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by CSW
FZ 2"Ø×38mm ingot, p-type Si:B[100]±2°, Ro:~2,900Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, made by SPC
FZ 2"Ø×(392+342+304+263+250+128)mm ingots, p-type Si:B[111]±2°, (2,000-5,000)Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, made by SiT
FZ 2"Ø×(100+87+86+85+85+84)mm ingots, n-type Si:P[111], (2,000-4,000) {2,166-3,835} Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 2"Ø×26mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111]±2°, (5,000-13,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,100μs, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 2"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, Ground, (9 ingots: 85mm, 84mm, 68mm, 84mm, 85mm, 70mm, 131mm, 131mm, 129mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 2"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±0.5°, Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 1.75"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 6,345-7,698 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 0.28Kg, 75mm, $300 for the piece) MCC Lifetime>7500μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 1.5"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 6,345-7,698 Ohmcm,(2 ingots: 0.20Kg, 75mm, $250 for each piece) MCC Lifetime>7500μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 1"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2°, Ro:1-3 Ohmcm, (5 ingots: 76mm, 80mm, 80mm, 82mm, 82mm) NO Flats, Lifetime=300μs. made by SPC
FZ p-type Si:B[100] ±2°, Ro:1-3Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 81mm total, of which 21mm is usable), Improperly cored (total cost = $90)
FZ 1"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100], Ro: 2,652-2,743 Ohmcm, 7 pieces, each 0.17Kg and 145 long. $150/piece, made by SilChm
FZ 1"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2°, Ro:3,400-4,100Ohmcm, Ground, (3 ingots: 75mm, 76mm, 77mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by ITME
FZ 1"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 120-130 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>8025μs, 6 pieces, each 0.06Kg and 50mm long. $150/piece NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 1"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,879-3,258 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 31mm, 0.05Kg, $200 for the piece) NO Flats, made by CSW
FZ 1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: ~2.7 Ohmcm, Ground, (5 ingots: 38mm, 37mm, 38mm, 37mm, 38mm), made by CSW, 5 pieces, each 0.05Kg and 37cmm long. $100/piece
FZ 1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 6,345-7,698 Ohmcm, (3 ingots: 0.09Kg, 75mm, $200 for each piece) MCC Lifetime>7500μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 1Ø×60mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, (1-2)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ Silicon Ingot, 48mmØx217mm, n-type Si:P[111], Ro=~300 Ohmcm, (p-type Ro>3,000 Ohmcm), NO Flats, made in TARNOW, Poland
FZ 1"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, NO Flats, Each piece is 98mm long and $500 total
FZ 1"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±2.0°, Ro: >17,500 Ohmcm, (2 ingots: 34.5mm, 29mm, $500 for each piece) NO Flats, made by CSW
FZ 6.35mmØ ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111], Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm, (1 lot of 8 rods, each 51mm long) made by CSW
FZ 6.35mmØ ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111], Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm, (1 lot of 11 rods, each ranging from 15mm to 49mm long) made by CSW
FZ 0.5"Ø×110mm ingot, n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 5,497-10,293 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>6,500μs. made by SilChm, 10 pieces, each piece is 0.5"Ø, 0.029Kg and 100mm long ($200.00 each).
FZ SCRAP material p-type, Ro: 1,000-10,000 Ohmcm
FZ SCRAP material p-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
FZ SCRAP material n-type, Ro: 1,000-10,000 Ohmcm
FZ SCRAP material n-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
FZ SCRAP material Intrinsic, Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 40mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100], Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 62mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100], Ro: 10-15 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 140mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100], Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 184mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110], Ro: 18.5-23.5 Ohmcm, on Graphite rail 165° from flat,(1 ingot: 137mm) 1 SEMI Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100], Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 21mm) NO Flats, made by Antek
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100], Ro: 0.829-0.925 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 187mm) 2Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100], Ro: 0.555-0.601 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 104mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110], Ro: >10 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 183mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.010-0.025 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 265mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 250mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø×318mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0037-0.0052)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #6450-1182
6"Ø×12mm ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (6.76-10.28)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, Ground, (4 ingots: 135mm, 336mm, 101mm, 428mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø×140mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0048-0.0055)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #1450-1017, Note: Secondary Flat 135° from Primary
6"Ø×330mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0040-0.0054)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #6450-186A
6"Øx254mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0038-0.0049)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #4899-10
6"Ø×(20+300)mm, n-type Si:As[100], Ground, made by Crysteco#6450 (2 ing: 28a(NoF), 28c(135°F))
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 360mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Øx50mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0033-0.0037)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #7001-1B
6"Øx114mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=~0.0025Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #9035-56, Note: Secondary Flat 135° from Primary
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 50mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.002 Ohmcm, Ground, (6 ingots: 295mm, 230mm, 229mm, 273mm, 247mm, 162mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by Topsil
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 257mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
5"Ø×273mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0024-0.0040)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/59
5"Ø×546mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0058)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #4761-3305
5"Ø×340mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0044)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/56
5"Ø×388mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0029-0.0044)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #.C991/64
5"Ø×380mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0025-0.0043)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #C991/32
5"Ø×305mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0025-0.0043)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #4761-2218
5"Ø×330mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0022-0.0040)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/58
5"Ø×375mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0021-0.0039)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991-31
5"Ø (5 ingots: 540mm, 254mm, 607mm, 644mm, 201mm), n-type Si:As[100], (0.001-0.007)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco
5"Ø×290mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0051)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made byCrysteco #C991/57
5"Ø×420mm n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0034)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991-25
5"Ø×416mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0024-0.0029)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/55
5"Ø×51mm ingot n-type Si:Sb[111], Ro=(0.0135-0.0142)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco
5"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 0.089-1.500 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 215.9mm) NO Flats, made by Cryst
5"Ø×200mm ingot n-type Si:As[111], (0.001-0.005)Ohmcm, SEMI, 2Flats, made by Crysteco
5"Ø×364mm ingot n-type Si:As[111] ±2°, Ro=(0.0016-0.0021)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #C991-63
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 126mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.015-0.020 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 83mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.003 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, Visible Striation marks(2 ingots: 108mm, 150mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.5-0.6 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 112mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.5-0.6 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 250mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.1-0.2 Ohmcm, (2 ingots: 60mm, 106mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.1-0.5 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 434mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.003 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 220mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Xiamen
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-100 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 319mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Topsil
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 5-10 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 196mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 19mm) 1Flat, made by Gener
4"Ø×219mm p-type Si:B[110]±1.5°, (59-67)Ohmcm, RRV<2.4%, One SEMI Flat, Diameter=(100.6-100.8) mm, C<3E16/cc, O2<9E17/cc; made in Russia
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110] ±2°, Ro: 0.001-0.010 Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat,
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-5 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 69mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.025-0.035 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 194mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-5 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 41mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 30-80 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 50mm, 182mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 32mm, 90mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø×(504+504+523+147+144)mm, p-type Si:B[111], As-Grown, made by Crysteco (5 ing 6c, 10b(Gnd 1F), 14a(Gnd 1F), 21Aa, 30d(Gnd 1F))
4"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[111], Ro: 0.010-0.015 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 159mm) , made by GenerR
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 4-6 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 18mm, 115mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±3°, Ro: 0.05-0.15 {0.130-0.145} Ohmcm, (4 ingots: 234mm, 231mm, 167mm, 294mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±3°, Ro: 4-6 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 25mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 3-9 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.010-0.023 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 38.1mm) , made by CSW
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, Ground, (3 ingots: 398mm, 342mm, 348mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by Topsil
4"Ø×(453+147+135)mm ingots, n-type Si:Sb[111] (0.050-0.090)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats(2), made by Motorola
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±3°, Ro: 10-30 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>0μs, (1 ingot: 28mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111], Ro: 0.15-0.55 Ohmcm, (2 ingots: 73mm, 80mm) 2Flats, made by Motoro
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111] ±2°, Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 31mm, 143mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø×227mm, n-type Si:As[111], Ingot As-Grown, made by Crysteco#7227 (13b)
3"Ø×194mm ingot, p-type Si:B[100]±3°, Ro:>20 Ohmcm, SEMI Flat(one), made by Prolog
3"Ø×174mm p-type Si:Ga[100] (1.77-2.13)Ωcm, Ingot "As-Grown", (82-85)mmØ, RRV=8%, Oxygen=6.2E17/cc; Made by ITME
3"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[211] ±2°, Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 36mm) 1Flat, made by CSW
3"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[111] ±0.5°, Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (3 ingots: 217mm, 32mm, 169mm) 2Flats, made by ITME
3"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[112], Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 76mm) 1Flat, made by Umicor
3"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[112], Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 76mm) 1Flat, made by Umicor
3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 1.25-2.50 Ohmcm, Ground, (3 ingots: 57mm, 144mm, 370mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Prolog
3"Ø ingot n-type Si:As[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.002-0.004 Ohmcm, Ground, (6 ingots: 246mm, 178mm, 194mm, 241mm, 397mm, 260mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by Topsil
3"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 280mm) 2Flats (2nd flat is 140° from primary)
2.5"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[111], Ro: >1 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 83mm) NO Flats, made by USA
2"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, (4 ingots: 22.5mm, 20.2mm, 19.2mm, 19.8mm) NO Flats, made by CSW
2"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100], Ro: 0.0150-0.0165 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 72mm, 72mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by Cryst
2"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110] ±2.0°, Ro: 10-20 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 36mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
2"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[111] ±2°, Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 45mm) NO Flats, made by CSW
2"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: <20 Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat, made by SPC
2"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, (2 ingots: 50mm, 50mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
2"Ø ingot Si[100] ±2°, Ro: Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by SPC
1"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100] ±2°, Ro: 5-35 Ohmcm, Ground, 3 pieces, each 0.08Kg and 66mm long. $150/piece NO Flats NO Flats, made by Prolog
1"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[100], Ro: 0.0150-0.0165 Ohmcm, Ground, (Each piece is ~0.09Kg and costs $150 for the piece, 4 ingots: 72mm, 72mm, 67mm, 67mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by CSW
1"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[110] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-5 Ohmcm, 5 pieces, each 0.12Kg and 99mm long. $150/piece NO Flats
1"Ø ingot p-type Si:B[111], Ro: 0.04-0.06 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 102mm) NO Flats, made by Matpur
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:As[110] ±0.5°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, (3 ingots: 119mm, 117mm, 127mm) SEMI, 1Flat, Empak cst, made by CSW, 3 Ingots, each 0.15Kg, 117mm and $200
25.4Ø ingot n-type Si:As[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by CSW, Each piece is 100±1mm long, 0.12Kg and costs $250 each
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.0176-0.0180 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by CSW, (b)2 Pieces available, each 0.14Kg, $200 and more than 76mm long(/b)
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.0118-0.0132 Ohmcm, Each ingot 0.06Kg, 52mm and $100 for piece(4 ingots: 52mm, 52mm, 52mm, 52mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±3°, Ro: 0.05-0.15 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by CSW, 5 pieces, each 0.06Kg and 52mm long. $150/piece
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111], Ro: 0.05-0.09 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 136mm) SEMI, 2Flats,
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, 3 pieces, 0.06Kg and 50 long. $100/piece) No Flats, made by Prolog
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111], Ro: 15-22 Ohmcm, NO Flats, 3 pieces each 0.09Kg, 77.5mm long, $200/piece, made by CSW
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111], Ro: 0.05-0.09 Ohmcm, (3 ingots, each 1"Ø, 0.071Kg, 59mm long and costs $150, made by Motorola
CZ SCRAP material p-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
CZ SCRAP material n-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
CZ SCRAP material CZ mix of n-type and p-type, Ro<1 Ohmcm
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.010-0.023 Ohmcm, (7 ingots: 108mm, $200 total for each 108mm piece), aro 1-2 wks , made 

 

Czochralski (CZ) Growth Process Answers

We provide a question and answer service for all your silicon wafer ingot growth questions. Why waste valuable time when you just have a need for a quick answer to a simple question?

Email us your questions today!

Czochralski (CZ) is the most common method to grow of crystalline silicon (c-Si). Silicon ingots used to make silicon wafers. The other method Float Zone (FZ) cost more to grow ingots, but has unique properties that make it necessary for some semicondcutor applications.

Please let us know if you need for CZ or FZ grown Ingots!

Silicon Wafer Sizes SEMI Standard

Diameter 50.8+/-.38mm 76.2+/-.63mm 100+/-.5mm 125+/-.5mm 150+/-.2mm 200+/-.2mm 300+/-.2mm
Thickness 279+/-25um 381+/-25um 525+/-20 um 625+/-20um 675+/-20um 725+/-20um 775+/-20um
Primary Flat Length 15.88+/-1.65mm 22.22+/-3.17mm 32.5+/-2.5mm 42.5+/-2.5 57.5+/-2.5mm Notch Notch
Secondary Flat Length 8+/-1.65mm 11.18+/-1.52mm 18.0+/-2.0mm 27.5+/-2.5mm 37.5+/-2.5mm N/A N/A
Primary Flat Location {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg.

 

Where Can I learn About The Czochralsk Process?

The following books can help you learn more about CZ Process. Or simply ask us your question!

Mikhail Korzhik, Alexander Gektin editors

G. MüllerP. Rudolph, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001

Crystal Growth from the Melt

The authors delve into the historical developments and theories of crystal growth as well as practical applications of crystal growth techniques and characterizations.
Chapter 2 focuses on the nucleation of the surface and discusses the equilibrium crystal-ambient phase, nucleus formation, rate of nucleation, saturation nucleus density, second-layer nucleation in homoepitaxy.  The chapter also covers the mechanism of clustering in heteroepitaxy, and the effects of surfactants on nucleation.

Crystal Growth Technique

Part B of the book covers the history of magnetic liquid-encapsulated growth, magnetic field interactions with the melt, dislocation density, magnetic field effects on impurity segregation, optical characterization of Indium Phosphide (InP) that is Iron (Fe) doped.

Czochralski (Cz) Growth applications of Single Crystals for fabrication wafers to make Semiconductors and Solar Cells.

Bulk Crystal Growth

future bulk crystal growth

D. T. J. Hurle - 2016

Bridgman and Related Growth Techniques

This volume has two parts.  The first part investigates crystal growth from various authorities on the subject including.

  • I. Sunagawa – Investigations of crystal growth in earth and planetary sciences
  • E. Monberg – Bridgman and related growth techniques
  • D.T.J. Hurle and B. Cockayne – Czochralski growth
  • J. Bohm A. Ludge and W. Shroder – Crystal growth by floating zone melting
  • P.J. Jansens and G.M van Rosmalen – Use of a magnetic field in melt growth
  • A.E.D.M van der Heijden – Fractional crystallization
  • A. McPherson – Crystallization of biological macromolecules
  • K. Byrappa – Hydrothermal growth of crystals
  • W. Tolksdorf – Flux growth
  • E. Kaldis and M. Piechotka – Bulk crystal growth by physical vapor transport

The second part of the volume covers growth mechanisms and dynamics

  • J.P. Garandet, J.J. Favier and D. Camel – Segregation Phenomena in crystal growth from the melt
  • G. Muller and A. Ostrogorsky – Convection in Melt Growth
  • J. Volkl – Stress in the cooling crystal
  • F. Dupret and N. van den Bogaert – Modelling Bridgman and Czochralski growth
  • V.A. Tatarchenko – Shaped crystal growth
  • J.D. Hunt and S.Z. Lu – Crystallisation of eutectics monotectics and peritectics
  • P.J. Phillips – Spherulitic crystallization in macromolecules
  • S. Sarag – Fundamentals of aqueous solution growth
  • F. Lefaucheux and M.C. Robert – Crystal growth in gels

Handbook of Crystal Growth

handbook of crystal growht by numerous authors

Edited by Thomas F. Kuech

This handbook has two parts and cites the work of numerous authors to guide semiconductor professionall through the various techniques to grow and work with crystals.
The First Part: Basic techniques

  • Epitaxy for Energy Materials - Roberto Fornari
  • Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy for Current III-V and Nitride Semiconductor Compound Issues - Evelyn Gil et al
  • The Science and Practice of Metal-Organic Vapor Phas Epitaxy (MOVPE) – Robert M. Biefeld et al
  • Principles of Molecular Beam Epitaxy – Aaron J. Ptak
  • Molecular Beam Epitaxy with Gaseous Sources – Hajime Asahi
  • Liquid-Phase Epitaxy – Michael G. Mauk
  • Solid-Phase Epitaxy – Brett C. Johnson, et al
  • Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) – Hiroshi Fujioka
  • Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires – Jon M. Redwing et al
  • Selective Area Masked Growth (Nano to Micro) – Jeong Dong Kim et al
  • Organic van der waals epitaxy versus Tepmlated Growth by Organic-Organic Heteroepitaxy – Clemens Simbrunner, Helmut Sitter
  • Epitaxy of Small Organic Molecules – Paul G. Evans, Josef W. Spalenka
  • Epitaxial Growth of Oxide Films and Nanostructures – Hidekazu Tanaka
  • Epitaxy of Carbon-Based Materials: Diamond Thin Film – Hongdong Li
  • Magnetic Semiconductors – Fumihiro Matsukura, Hideo Ohno
  • MOCVD of Nitride – Hiroshi Amano
  • Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Nitrides for Advanced Electronic Materials – G. Koblmuller, J.R. Lang, E.C. Young, J.S. Speck
  • Epitaxial Graphene – D. Kurt Gaskill

The Second Part: Materials, Processes, and Technology

  • Chemical Vapor Deposition of Two-Dimensional Crystals – Zachary R. Robinson, Scott W. Schmucker, Kathleen M. McCreary, Enrique D. Cobas
  • Kinetic Processes in Vapor Phase Epitaxy – Nathan Newman, Mahmoud Vahidi
  • Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy Chemical Kinetics – Thomas F. Kuech
  • Transport Phenomena in Vapor Phase Epitaxy Reactors – Roman Talalaev
  • Nucleation and Surface Diffusion in Molecular Beam Epitaxy – Tatau Nishinaga
  • Predicted Thermal – and Lattice-Mismatch Stresses – E. Suhir
  • Low-Temperature and Metamorphic Buffer Layers – John E. Ayers
  • Self-Assembly in Semiconductor Epitaxy: From Growth Mechanisms to Device Applications – Arnab Bhattacharya, Bhavtosh Bansal
  • Atomic Layer Depostion – H.C.M. Knoops et al
  • Silicon Carbide Epitaxy – Marek Skowronski, Tsunenobu Kimoto
  • In-Situ Characterization of Epitaxy – April S. Brown, Maria Losurdo
  • X-Ray and Electron Diffraction for Epitaxial Structures – Mark S. Goorsky
  • Growth of III/V’s on Silicon: Nitride, Phosphides, Arsenides and Antimonides – Kerstin Volz et al
  • Heteroepitaxial Growth of Si, Si1-xGex-, and Ge-Based Alloy – Osamu Nakatsuka, Shigeaki Zaima